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Kepplinger B.,Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Pain Treatment and Neurorehabilitation | Baran H.,Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Pain Treatment and Neurorehabilitation | Sedlnitzky-Semler B.,Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Pain Treatment and Neurorehabilitation | Badawi N.-R.,Neuropsychiatric Hospital | Erhart H.,Neuropsychiatric Hospital
International Journal of Tryptophan Research | Year: 2011

Background: Stochastic resonance therapy (SRT) is used for rehabilitation of patients with various neuropsychiatric diseases. An alteration in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway has been identified in the central and peripheral nervous systems in patients with neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and during the aging process. This study investigated the effect of SRT as an exercise activity on serum tryptophan metabolites in healthy subjects. Methods: Serum L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid levels were measured one minute before SRT and at one, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after SRT. We found that SRT affected tryptophan metabolism. Serum levels of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, and kynurenic acid were significantly reduced for up to 60 minutes after SRT. Anthranilic acid levels were characterized by a moderate, non significant transient decrease for up to 15 minutes, followed by normalization at 60 minutes. Tryptophan metabolite ratios were moderately altered, suggesting activation of metabolism after SRT. Lowering of tryptophan would generally involve activation of tryptophan catabolism and neurotransmitter, protein, and bone biosynthesis. Lowering of kynurenic acid by SRT might be relevant for improving symptoms in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and depression, as well as certain pain conditions. © the author(s). Source


Baran H.,Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Pain Treatment and Neurorehabilitation | Baran H.,Medical University of Vienna | Kepplinger B.,Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Pain Treatment and Neurorehabilitation | Draxler M.,Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Pain Treatment and Neurorehabilitation | Draxler M.,Medical University of Vienna
International Journal of Tryptophan Research | Year: 2010

The endogenous neuroinhibitory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) has been hypothetically linked to physiological processes and to the pathogenesis of several brain disorders. The aim of this study was to search KYNA metabolism i.e. KYNA levels and enzymes synthesising KYNA kynurenine aminotransferase I and II (KAT I and II) in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the peripheral nervous system. Within the investigated species we found a remarkably low KYNA content (3.4 nM) in piglet's serum compared to rat and human serum. Furthermore, in contrast to high KAT activity present in rat and human livers, a lack of KAT I and KAT II activity was found in piglet liver and other piglet peripheral organs. Therefore we attempted to find a reason for the absence of KYNA formation in piglet peripheral tissue and we researched to find if KYNA formation in rat liver homogenate (measured under standard assay conditions for KAT activity) can be influenced by the application of piglet tissue homogenates and other body fluids. KYNA formation in rat liver homogenate was investigated in the presence of piglet liver, piglet brain, rat brain and human brain homogenates, and also in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the control and of Multiple Sclerosis patients. We found a significant and dose dependent reduction of rat liver KAT I and KAT II activities in the presence of piglet brain, piglet liver, and human brain, but not in the presence of rat brain homogenate. Interestingly, CSF of the human control subjects significantly lowered rat liver KAT I activity. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of CSF of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients was significantly weaker when compared to the CSF of control subjects. Our data, for the first time, indicated the presence of active component(s)-depressing factor-in the body, which was able to block KYNA formation. Reduced KAT inhibitory effect by CSF of MS patients would suggest a lowered "depressing factor" level in CSF of MS patients and is possibly responsible for an enhancement of KYNA formation and for glia activation and gliosis in the CNS. Subsequently, two fractions obtained after centrifugation of CSF from patients with Neuroborreliosis showed a significantly different ability to block KAT I activity. The CSF-sediment fraction exerts a stronger inhibitory activity than the CSF-supernatant fraction, supporting further the presence of a depressing factor. For the first time, data revealed and demonstrated the ability of endogenous components to block KYNA's synthesis. We propose that a glia depressing factor (GDF), which is abundantly present in the body, might simultaneously control glia cell's KAT activity, respectively KYNA synthesis and also glia proliferation. The mechanism(s) of action, the composition and structure of this factor needs to be further elaborated. © the author(s). Source

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