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Fioravanti V.,University of Bremen | Chandrashekar S.,University of Bremen | Brandhoff L.,University of Bremen | Pucciarelli D.,Medical University of Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2015

We present an infrared biopsymeter to assist pathologists in the diagnosis of melanoma presence in skin biopsies. The designed and realized system combines the features of visual inspection and physical sensing to reduce false positives and false negatives occurring during standard histopathological analyses. The biopsymeter determines the CH2-stretch ratio by infrared absorbance measurements of skin biopsies. Investigations conducted with the biopsymeter shows that malignant melanomas and melanoma metastases have higher CH2-stretch ratio values compared to healthy skin tissues. © 2015 SPIE. Source


Trautinger F.,Karl Landsteiner Institute of Dermatological Research | Trautinger F.,Medical University of Vienna | Just U.,Medical University of Vienna | Knobler R.,Medical University of Vienna
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2013

Photopheresis is a form of phototherapy where specialized equipment is used to isolate a leukocyte fraction from the peripheral blood which is then exposed to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen and reinfused into the patient. At the time of its invention the treatment was conceptually based on the hypothesis of T cell vaccination, i.e. the observation in experimental studies that exposure of the immune system to physically modified T cell clones leads to a specific inhibition of T cell mediated autoimmunity. Consequently, photopheresis has been tried in a variety of conditions where T cells are thought to have a critical role and has shown clinical efficacy mainly in variants of cutaneous T cell lymphomas, graft-versus-host disease, systemic sclerosis, in solid organ transplant rejection and Crohn's disease. Evidence has accumulated that alterations in antigen presentation and the generation of regulatory T cells are induced by photopheresis and might be related to the observed clinical effects. Summarizing what has been published in the 25 years since its introduction into the clinic, photopheresis to date has found its place in the treatment of the above mentioned conditions as a well tolerated treatment option that can safely be combined with other established modalities. It can be expected that further research will help refine its clinical indications and close the gaps that still exist in our knowledge on when, how, and why photopheresis works. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies. Source


Der-Petrossian M.,Medical University of Vienna | Valencak J.,Medical University of Vienna | Jonak C.,Medical University of Vienna | Klosner G.,Medical University of Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2011

Background The Langerhans cell (LC) hypothesis suggests that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are diseases of chronic T-cell stimulation by LC-mediated antigen presentation. Objective To investigate a broad panel of CTCL and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL) for the spatial association of langerin + dendritic cells (DC) with T and B cells in the skin, respectively. Methods Fifty-five specimens of CTCL and 10 of CBCL were double-stained with monoclonal antibodies against langerin and CD3 or CD20, respectively, and evaluated by confocal laser scan microscopy. Results Dermal infiltrates in mycosis fungoides (n = 38), primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (n = 3) and primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (n = 3) were characterized by a high frequency of dermal langerin + DCs. These cells were exclusively present in the malignant infiltrates. No direct co-localization of CD3 and langerin could be resolved. Dermal langerin + cells were detected only in one of six primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas (C-ALCL), characterized by epidermotropism. In other C-ALCL cases (five of six), in lymphomatoid papulosis (n = 3), subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (n = 2), and all variants of CBCL no dermal langerin + DCs could be found. Conclusions Langerin + DCs are abundant in the dermal infiltrates of T-cell lymphomas with specific involvement of the epidermis. This might indicate that immature LC and neoplastic T cells interact and gives rise to further studies to characterize the phenotype of the langerin + cell population described here and its role in the pathology of CTCL. © 2010 The Authors. Source


Eder J.,Health Science University | Eder J.,Karl Landsteiner Institute of Dermatological Research | Prillinger K.,Health Science University | Prillinger K.,Karl Landsteiner Institute of Dermatological Research | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Background Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common precursors of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin making them an important public health issue with information on their prevalence widely lacking. Objectives To define the prevalence of AK in dermatology outpatients in Austria and to identify more accurately the target population for AK screening, treatment and prevention. Methods Each of the 48 randomly selected Austrian office-based dermatologists simultaneously screened 100 consecutive patients (aged ≥ 30 years) for the presence of AK. Results In total, 4449 evaluable patients showed an overall AK prevalence of 31·0%, which was higher in men (39·2%) than in women (24·3%) and increased with age in both sexes. AK distribution among sun-exposed body sites and extent of disease varied with sex and region. Conclusions In Austria, AKs are common among dermatology outpatients, who have access to professional education and treatment. Investigations regarding the efficacy of routine AK screening in dermatology outpatients for the prevention of invasive SCC is warranted. What's already known about this topic? AKs are common precursor lesions of SCC with prevalence data originating mostly from Australia and the U.S.A. What does this study add? In Austria, one-third of dermatology outpatients have AK. Chronically sun-exposed body sites of older men are particularly affected. Adult dermatology outpatients are a suitable target population for AK screening, treatment and prevention. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists. Source


Eder J.,Karl Landsteiner Institute of Dermatological Research | Hlavin G.,Medical University of Vienna | Haushofer A.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine | Trubert-Exinger D.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine | Trautinger F.,Karl Landsteiner Institute of Dermatological Research
JDDG - Journal of the German Society of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a specific biomarker for early detection of bacterial infections. While the usefulness of procalcitonin in severe conditions such as sepsis is well established, its relevance in the diagnosis and prognosis of localized cutaneous bacterial infections is unknown. Our aim was to initially evaluate if PCT is a useful parameter for predicting the severity of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI). Furthermore, the correlation of PCT levels with C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and body temperature was investigated. Patients and Methods: Serum PCT, routine laboratory parameters, and body temperature were regularly examined in 50 consecutive patients with SSSI requiring inpatient intravenous antibiotic treatment. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to the guidelines developed by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) as having either an uncomplicated (SSSI) or a complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI). Results: No significant correlation could be detected between the length of inpatient antibiotic treatment and PCT on days 1, 2, 3, and the maximum value on these days. The same result was found when uncomplicated SSSI and complicated SSSI (cSSSI) were evaluated separately. However, PCT levels were significantly higher in the latter. Furthermore, PCT levels showed a significant correlation with CRP, leukocyte count, ESR, and body temperature. Conclusion: PCT might be a useful additional tool for initial diagnosis and monitoring of patients with SSSI. © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin. Source

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