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News Article | April 29, 2017
Site: phys.org

The instrument, named "ShadowCam," will be a U.S. contribution to the Korea Aerospace Research Institute's (KARI) first lunar exploration mission, Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO). The ShadowCam optical camera is based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow Angle Camera also developed by Mark Robinson and MSSS. It is, however, significantly more sensitive, allowing the camera to obtain high-resolution, high signal-to-noise imaging of the Moon's PSRs. "The telescope and much of the electronics will be identical," says ShadowCam principal investigator Robinson. "The big difference is swapping out the current image sensor for one that is 800 times more sensitive, allowing high resolution imaging within permanently shadowed regions, something the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera cannot accomplish." For those familiar with digital cameras, this sensitivity gain is like going from ISO 100 to ISO 80,000. Launching in 2018, ShadowCam will observe PSRs on the Moon monthly to detect seasonal changes as well as measure the terrain inside these enigmatic craters, including the distribution of boulders. Eventually ShadowCam images will be merged with the Lunar Reconnaissance Obiter Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images to make complete maps of inside and outside of craters that host PSRs. While the NAC provides coverage of illuminated areas, ShadowCam will provide images of the shadowed areas. "These merged maps will put us one step closer to enabling landers and rovers to investigate the mysterious lunar PSRs," says Robinson. ShadowCam will address what NASA calls, "Strategic Knowledge Gaps," or information the agency would like to gather in order to reduce risk, increase effectiveness, and improve the designs of future human and robotic missions in deep space. ShadowCam joins four other instruments on KPLO. KARI, headquartered in Daejeon, South Korea, provided NASA with 15 kg (about 33 pounds) of payload space aboard the KPLO, which is scheduled to launch into lunar orbit in December 2018. ShadowCam was selected as a result of NASA seeking science instruments that could increase our understanding of the distribution of volatiles, such as water, including the movement of such resources toward permanently shadowed regions and how they become trapped there. "Permanently shadowed regions have been a mystery because the perpetually dark interiors are difficult to image and existing research offers varying interpretations regarding the distribution of volatiles within these cold regions," says Jason Crusan, Director of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington DC. "Future missions in deep space will be safer and more affordable if we have the capability to harvest lunar resources, and ShadowCam has the potential to greatly increase our understanding of the quality and abundance of those resources in these regions." Robinson and his team, including ShadowCam's deputy principal investigator Prasun Mahanti and co-investigator Nicholas Estes, plan to run joint operations with ShadowCam and LROC from ASU's Tempe campus. "There is much synergy having the experiments run jointly both in terms of operational efficiency and science return," says Robinson. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division (AES) led the payload solicitation and selection for the NASA instrument on KPLO. A division of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, AES uses innovative approaches and public-private partnerships to rapidly develop prototype systems, advance key capabilities, and validate operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. Through this partnership opportunity with KARI, AES is addressing key lunar SKGs while complementing KARI's primary mission objectives and instruments. Explore further: Scientist to Work With NASA's Lunar Orbiter

News Article | July 11, 2017
Site: www.prfire.com

13 YEAR OLD GIRL CREATES A SIRI CLONE IN LESS THAN A WEEK Through a new interest in computer science and wanting to learn more about artificial intelligence 13-year-old Kari Lawler from Solihull, UK set herself the challenge of creating her own virtual assistant like Apple’s Siri or Amazon’s Alexa. After purchasing a few books, she very quickly taught herself the necessary programming skills and within a few days it was apparent she was making considerable progress and amazingly within just one week she had a working prototype. Her family has stated it’s amazing what she has achieved at her age with very little resources. The fact her personal assistant responds in a similar manner to Siri and even has the same witty attitude when asked something out of the ordinary is marvellous. It’s also especially incredible when you consider what the large technology companies have probably spent on producing something not much different to what Kari has managed to achieve in such a short amount of time. Looking to the future Kari does plan to expand on her prototype and does see great value in this type of technology. She believes if more human like back and forth conversation could be achieved. Then virtual human interaction would be of great benefit in areas such as social care; like providing company to the elderly or assistance for people with dementia. Similarly, she sees it been used a learning assistant for whole class teaching or for helping individual students in a school. Realistically though, she appreciates she has a long way to go before realising this vision. However, in the meantime she would very much like to connect and learn through maybe a mentoring role with any individuals or companies in this field. Kari now 14 is a very bright and gifted young lady excelling in English, mathematics and science. At the age of 11 she was diagnosed with ASD. Since her diagnosis and through no fault of her own she has had great difficulty in accessing an education in a mainstream setting which has resulted in her being out of school now for just over a year. The resistance Kari is facing is solely down to a complete lack of understanding of Autism. Even though Kari has never had any learning needs, behavioural issues, communication or high anxiety issues at school, schools approached just assume the worse based on stereotypes and dismissively say no without looking at her as an individual. Overall Kari want’s nothing more than to be back in school doing what she loves the most, which is learning.

Cho D.-H.,KARI | Bang H.,KAIST | Kim H.-D.,KARI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

There are many kinds of strategies for the optimal lunar landing trajectory design. This lunar landing stage is usually divided into two parts, de-orbit burn phase and powered descent phase, and the optimal lunar landing problem is focused on the powered descent phase by using continuous thruster. These optimal lunar landing trajectories have a variety shape and the lunar lander frequently increased its altitude at the initial time to earn the enough time to reduce the horizontal velocity. Due to this increase, the lunar lander requires more fuel for lunar landing mission. This phenomenon is depending on its thrust-mass ratio. For the enough thrust, this increase in the altitude is reduced, but this huge thrust-mass ratio is sometimes not physically possible due to the cost, mass budget, thruster technology and so on. Therefore, we suggest the hybrid engine for the lunar landing mission and we also introduce the optimal lunar landing strategy for this engine. For this approach, we supposed that the lunar lander retro fired the impulsive thruster to rapidly reduce the horizontal velocity at the initiated time of the powered descent phase. Then the lander reduced the total velocity and altitude for the lunar landing by using continuous thruster. In contradistinction to other formal optimal lunar landing problem, the initial horizontal velocity and mass are not fixed at the start time due to the retrofiring maneuver in this problem. Thus, the initial free optimal control theory is applied in this paper and we can find out the optimal initial value and optimal lunar landing trajectory to minimize the fuel consumption.

Baek S.-H.,KAIST | Kim W.-S.,KARI | Jang C.-J.,KAIST | Lee J.-J.,KAIST
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2011

For most of structural failure in engineering structures, fracture often takes place due to a phenomenon called fatigue. Therefore, many studies about the effect of the various mode-mixities on fatigue characteristics have been performed. However, most of the former studies are about metal/metal interface or delamination of composite. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of a composite/metal interface are investigated. The fatigue tests were performed using single-leg bending (SLB) specimens bonded with composite and steel using co-cure bonding method. This paper focuses on the fatigue characteristics depending on different mode ratios (GΠ/GT). The overall results obtained in this study show that the crack propagation rate increases with the mode Π loading component.

Cho D.-H.,KARI | Lee D.,KARI | Kim H.-D.,KARI
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2016

In the optimal trajectory design problem for the lunar powered-descent phase, the periapsis of the de-orbit burn phase is usually chosen as a starting point or an initial state. The resultant trajectory in these cases shows that the altitude of the lander increases to gain more sufficient time to reduce large initial horizontal velocity. However, the periapsis of the de-orbit burn phase is not the optimal choice. In this study, the optimal initial phase angle can be found by applying the modified trajectory-optimization problem, where the initial state is considered as a free variable. In this problem, any additional assumption and change in hardware compared with the traditional optimal lunar-landing problem are not imposed except for the initial phase angle. Using the proposed numerical approach, we show that the optimal phase angle is not always equivalent to the periapsis, and fuel consumption can be reduced by changing the starting point of the powered descent phase. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Heo Y.J.,KARI | Cho J.,KARI | Heo M.B.,KARI
CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) | Year: 2010

This paper describes a simple technique to detect discontinuities in GPS clock behavior. We develop a real-time technique to detect GPS clock anomalies. In order to detect sudden jumps in the clock, we employ GPS measurements and the Teager energy operator. The results demonstrate that the proposed clock jump detection scheme can effectively detect clock jumps of less 10 ns from GPS measurements. © 2010 IEEE.

Cho A.,KARI | Kang Y.-S.,KARI | Park B.-J.,KARI | Yoo C.-S.,KARI
International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2013

The aircraft autopilot needs the feedback of airflow angles, that is, angle-of attack and sideslip angle to control the aircraft. The airflow angles measured by a mechanical vane are not accurate and very noisy for low airspeed. Moreover, the vane has a mechanical failure risk. This paper describes the extended Kalman filter based method to estimate the airflow angles and three-dimensional wind speed under constant wind condition. In addition, it can correct the scaling error of the airspeed of an aircraft. It uses the airspeed measurements, constant wind condition and the sideslip angle computed from GPS/INS navigation data and stability and control derivatives estimated from flight data. Simulation results show that the proposed method works well in various conditions. It is expected that estimated airflow angles will be able to replace the airflow angles measured by a primary system. Estimated wind speed can also be used to reconstruct the GPS/INS navigation system by correcting the airspeed in the case of GPS failure. © 2013 IEEE.

Cho D.-H.,KARI | Kim H.-D.,KARI
International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2014

To design the optimal lunar landing trajectory, the periapsis of de-orbit burn phase is usually used as a starting point of the powered descent phase. And the optimal problem is constructed based on the initial states at this point. For this optimal problem, some kinds of result trajectories have the increase in their own altitude at the early stage to earn the enough time to reduce their huge horizontal velocity for the low thrust, and this phenomenon increase the consumption of the propellant mass. For this reason, it is possible to exist another phase angle to reduce this phenomenon instead of zero for periapsis of de-orbit burn phase because the vertical velocity is not zero at this point. To find out this optimal phase angle, in this paper, the initial free state optimal problem method is applied without any additional assumption and change of hardware for the traditional optimal lunar landing problem. Using this approach, it shows that the optimal phase angle does not always equal to the periapsis for some cases, and it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption of the lunar lander. © 2014 Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems (ICROS).

Cho A.,KARI | Kang Y.-S.,KARI | Park B.-J.,KARI | Yoo C.-S.,KARI | Koo S.-O.,KARI
International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2012

Most aircrafts are equipped with an air data system to measure airspeed, angle-of-sideslip(AOS) and so on. An air data system consists of Pitot-static tube and gimbal-mounted weathervane. The static pressure obtained by Pitot-static tube is affected by fuselage nose and angle-of-attack(AOA). To measure AOA and AOS accurately, weathervane should be placed out of boundary layer around fuselage nose. But due to structural problems, it is not easy to keep sufficient distance between static-hole of Pitot-static tube and fuselage nose. This gives rise to the error of measured air data and it is difficult to correct this error by wind-tunnel test or computational method. Thus, air data system must be calibrated through flight test after installation. This paper proposes the Kalman filter setup to calibrate static pressure, or airspeed and barometric altitude using GPS ground velocity. And also Kalman filter based AOS calibration method is proposed using flight data. Proposed methods are verified by simulation and real flight data of S m a r t U AV. © 2012 ICROS.

Global Aerospace Lubricant Market size was approximately 90 kilo tons in 2015 and is projected to surpass 135 kilo tons in 2024, with estimated gains of more than 4% CAGR. in terms of revenue, the industry is estimated to cross USD 900 million by 2024. Aerospace lubricant improves efficiency of the engine by reducing frictions between two surfaces, resulting in more kilometres in same amount of fuel. Global air traffic grew by 6% owning to increase in the frequency of flights. Rising consumer income resulting in lavish lifestyles along with reduced air fares is anticipated to be the key factor propelling industry growth. Increasing investments in defence by countries including Russia, China and India, will consequently drive industry growth. For instance, China invested over USD 140 billion in 2015 to design and develop aircrafts and missiles with extensive capability. Russia is investing on modernising its armour and fighting vehicles which may fuel aerospace lubricant market size over the forecast timeframe. Request for an in-depth table of contents for this report @ https://www.gminsights.com/request-toc/upcoming/811  Investments on space studies by agencies like NASA, ISRO, Korea aerospace research institute (KARI), Iranian space agency, Japanese Aeronautics exploration agency, European space agency, China national space organisation, may stimulate aerospace lubricant demand owing to widespread product application in spaceships. Spaceship requires high reliability, lifetime lubrication owning to increase demand of lubricants. In spaceships, the products are majorly used in flap actuator, oxygen breathing system, valves & pumps, rocket engine assemblies and bearing in gyroscopes. Gas turbine oil, piston oil, hydraulic fluid and grease are the major products in the global aerospace market share. Gas turbine oil was significant industry share contributor in 2015. It provides efficient cooling and prevents corrosion while the engine is operated owing to increase engine efficiency. It also supports aircraft specifications such as water contamination resistance, high oxidative stability, and reduction of downtime. Piston aerospace lubricants was another substantial industry share contributor in 2015. It reduces over 50% of friction and improvement, which directly impacts on the fuel efficiency. Civil aviation, defence and space are the end users of the aerospace lubricants market share. Civil aviation dominated the end user base and accounted roughly more than 60% of the global volume in 2015. Increasing air traffic China & India, along with lower fares is analysed to be the key factor propelling aerospace lubricants market size for civil aviation. Rising investments on space mission by the U.S., India, Germany and France will favour industry growth. Furthermore, increasing military expenditure in fighter jets by Russia and China will further complement industry growth by 2024. Asia Pacific, mainly led by China, India, Thailand, and Indonesia, and significant aerospace lubricant market size contributor owing to rising air traffic, military and space mission investments in the region. Middle East & Africa (MEA) is witnessing remarkable growth due to urbanisation, and economic development, which has have resulted in increased airbus usage. Growing service industry and tourism in the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Oman are factor fuelling industry growth. Global aerospace lubricant market share is consolidated due to limited number of manufacturers. Major companies operating in the business includes Castrol, Shell, Quaker Chemical Corporation, Fuchs Group, British Petroleum, Petrobras, Chevron Corporation, Exxon Mobil, DuPont, Phillips 66, and Sinopec. Other industry players such as Northrop Grumman and SpaceX provide spaceships and satellites. Industry players are involved in product development with value added characteristics. For instance, DuPont’s Krytox perfluoropolyether (PFPE), is desirable in the industry as it remains unaffected with temperature ranging from -710 F to 7500 F. It also helps in shock & vibration absorption, resistance to vapor loss in vacuum. Global Market Insights, Inc., headquartered in Delaware, U.S., is a global market research and consulting service provider; offering syndicated and custom research reports along with growth consulting services. Our business intelligence and industry research reports offer clients with penetrative insights and actionable market data specially designed and presented to aid strategic decision making. These exhaustive reports are designed via a proprietary research methodology and are available for key industries such as chemicals, advanced materials, technology, renewable energy and biotechnology.

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