Ruggiero S.,University of Jyväskylä |
Onkila T.,University of Jyväskylä |
Kuittinen V.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2014
This study shows how stakeholders influence the development of community renewable energy (CRE) schemes and how they are influenced by their outcome. It relies on information collected during 41 structured interviews with local people involved in CRE initiatives in seven regions of Europe. The interviews were thematically analyzed to identify different types of stakeholder influence. The findings show that stakeholder influence on CRE schemes take place at three distinct levels: macro, intercommunity and intracommunity. In addition, key stakeholders can support or hinder the development of a project according to whether or not they perceive that the output of the project may benefit or harm them. The study contributes to the research on local renewable energy (RE) development by showing how stakeholders take on multiple roles and how their roles may change from process to outcome. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of two stakeholder groups: intermediary organizations and local champions. These were groups whose positive influence was crucial in the implementation phase and for whom ad hoc policy could be established. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Appiah M.,University of Helsinki |
Pappinen A.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2010
Deforestation and degradation of productive lands are serious threats to the sustainability of forestry/agricultural practices in Kenya. In the last two decades farm forestry (FF) has been promoted through pilot projects among local communities as an example of sustainable land use. However adoption of FF is limited outside the project locations because FF improvement measures focused mainly on biological (e. g. succession, biodiversity and traditional industrial timber production) and technical concerns (e. g. material input delivery such as providing free tree seedlings for field planting) rather than local values, and interests and the constraints facing farmers. This study examined the local farm priorities and constraints and the prospects for the wider implementation of farm-level tree planting in four communities in Rachuonyo District. Using interviews with 597 randomly selected household heads, the study assessed farmer's production assets and activities, land tenure, priority tree species and the constraints to growing trees on farms. Results show that farm labour is represented by a young population, 56.3% under the age of forty. They are mainly engaged in small-scale mixed cropping integrated with multipurpose trees and some livestock. Tree products contribute about 32% to household cash income, more than any other source (agricultural products, labour sales, etc). Females were more often household heads and had considerable influence over productive activities, making them an important target group in FF development. Farmers preferred exotic tree species due to their ability to provide short-term cash income, fuel and shade. Farmers' concerns included population pressure on limited farmlands and the problem of credit for agricultural inputs. Given the feeling of secured tenure arrangement and influence of tree products on the household economy, farmers are likely to invest more in efficient land uses such as FF if consideration is given to local priorities. © 2010 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.
Paukkunen S.,University of Eastern Finland |
Paukkunen S.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering | Year: 2014
This article presents the opportunities to use small size round wood as a raw material for wood pellets. Article is aimed to give an insight to results of the study and to initiate discussion related on topical questions among pellet industry: what is the quality of pellets produced of undebarked young thinning wood (pine and pine-birch mixture) or debarked young thinning wood. Other topics of the study are to find out: has felling timing or growing habitat any influence to the chemical composition of pellets. Fuel quality indicates that high quality pellets can be produced of alternative raw materials. Key findings of this study are that there is a big opportunity to use undebarked small diameter pine and undebarked small diameter pine pinebirch mixture as a raw material for wood pellets. According chemical analysis small diameter thinning wood with bark is useful raw material for EN 14961-2 (2011) A1 wood pellets. In Finland traditionally small diameter wood has been used as a raw material for wood chips and for pulp and paper industry. Due to the changes in of pulp and paper industry new production opportunities for using small diameter wood should be found. In the future using small size thinning wood as a raw material for pellets can boost the demand of thinning wood and so help to manage young forests in Finland.
Okkonen L.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences |
Suhonen N.,University of Eastern Finland
Energy Policy | Year: 2010
This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Suhonen N.,University of Eastern Finland |
Okkonen L.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
Energy Services Companies are widely implemented for improving energy efficiency both in the public sector and industry. The model has also been introduced as a business model for biomass-based heat entrepreneurship. However, the residential sector has been problematic with regard to ESCo adoption and constitutes a minor share of ESCo operations. The barriers, both social and economic, are many. This paper focuses on the application of ESCo as a business model for heat entrepreneurship in Finland. First, we present the ESCo model and a review of the main barriers. Second, we present the modelling with aspects of profitability and risk sharing. Third, we demonstrate the operation in the residential sector by using 26 housing associations as a case study. We simulate the energy investment, profitability of operation, and the sharing of risks between the customer and the ESCo. The results indicate that the ESCo model is challenging in our case area. Low profit levels and the assumed customer's preference for achieving cost savings from the beginning of energy renovation can result in long contract periods tying up the capital. The ESCo model is unattractive in the current business climate, requiring modifications or integration with other maintenance services of housing associations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Kareinen J.E.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences |
Potry J.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2012
Prevalent traditional e-learning platforms are monolithic systems, including most of the educational functionalities built in. In general, those solutions are often challenging and expensive to customize or develop for the customers' needs. Meanwhile, social web applications and collaborative tools have enhanced team working and online communication. These so-called web 2.0 features are available in enterprise portal software. This paper presents a case and a solution pilot where an open-source enterprise portal forms a platform for an e-learning environment. The aim was to test how social and other web applications may enhance computer-supported collaborative learning. The first results suggest that new web technologies allow new kinds of solutions and practices in e-learning. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Lehtonen O.,University of Eastern Finland |
Okkonen L.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2013
The regional bioeconomy has a high importance for generating socio-economic impacts, especially in sparsely populated resource peripheries. The benefits include increased employment and income and improved security of supply. In this study, the modified regional input-output model is applied for analysing the socio-economic impacts of Suutela wooden village construction in North Karelia, Finland. The main objective of this article is to provide an illustrative example on the regional input-output modelling, applied to the investigation of the socio-economic impacts of a conventional, decentralised bioeconomy. Based on this Finnish case of a wooden village with bioenergy district heating, we demonstrate both the employment and income potentials of a decentralised bioeconomy. The results indicate good socio-economic potential of local wood construction, resulting in about 250 personnel working years and a total economic impact of 43. 7 million euros on the regional economy. To maintain the sensitivity of the input-output modelling, it is considered more suitable for overall regional impact estimations, rather than pointing out differences between the subsystems. When modified for research purposes, the regional input-output model is well capable to efficiently describe the socio-economic impacts and providing information for local decision-makers to support new projects of a bioeconomy. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Raivo P.J.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Nordia Geographical Publications | Year: 2015
The historical landscapes of war and conflict - such as battlefields, remains of military constructions, memorials and graveyards - are fundamental parts of the national iconography of modern states. They stand there not just for their own sake but to - regardless of its pitfalls and mythological aspects - evince a nationalistic narrative of unified history and culture from past time up to the present day. The meanings and historical narratives related to places and landscapes are part of continuous processes of reproduction and representation. Historical places and landscapes and their meanings have never arisen for nothing. On the contrary, they are a part of wider social discourses and the reading and interpretation practices associated with these. These discourses act as frameworks that include particular combinations of narratives, concepts, myths, ideologies and signifying practices, each relevant to a particular realm of social action. They can enable and constrain meanings by constituting the limits within which ideas and practices are considered to be natural. In this article certain factors or interpretation practices related to the historical landscapes of war are identified and discussed. These factors may be identified as processes of 1) marking 2) naming 3) seeing and 4) controlling.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-2008-PEOPLE-NIGHT | Award Amount: 95.00K | Year: 2008
The objective of the Researchers Night 2008 event in Eastern Finland on 26th of September is to bridge the gap between city and science, to allow casual face-to-face meetings between citizens and researchers in a relaxed atmosphere as a joint undertaking of two regions, five research and development organisations and several associated organisations. The activities of the Researchers Night 2008 Eastern Finland will be organised simultaneously in two regions, in cities of Kuopio and Joensuu with their surroundings. The activities to be arranged, like science cafs, photos and drawing competitions, games and radio shows, give large public an opportunity to meet researchers from a wide range of scientific fields in an enjoyable environment and a variety of entertaining and fun activities will aim to highlight the appeal of pursuing a career in research. To introduce the international character of research international guests, researchers and students will be invited to take part to a number of activities. The event seeks to enable new thematic perspectives by bringing researchers, cities, schools, associations and companies together in order to show how research translates into practice in a concrete way. The event increases citizens knowledge about the diversified research carried out in the universities of Eastern Finland and embraces the universities consolidation and creation of the University of Eastern Finland in 2010. Public at large will learn about the impact research has on the regions and on larger scale to Europes competitiveness and sustainability. Both of the regional events follow the same variety and structure of activities, but their themes and topics differ based on regional tendencies and strengths. The themes will highlight the know-how, expertise and strengths characteristic for the two regions yet being simultaneously local public concerning and actual.
Vayrynen J.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences |
Monkkonen K.,Karelia University of Applied Sciences |
Paakkonen P.,University of Eastern Finland
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2016 | Year: 2016
The ever increasing number of high precision polymer optical component required in general lighting, automotive lighting, displays, healthcare devices and metrology devices is pushing forward tighter tolerances for optical manufacturing. There is a large number of mass produced polymer optical components that need to be manufactured within nanometric level surface roughness and preferable with submicron form accuracy. Moulded polymer optics are mainly produced by using dies and molds that are made from hardened tool steels. Cutting of tool steel materials to low surface roughness and high accuracy has always been challenging. The traditional way to make steel inserts uses high accuracy manufacturing techniques such as grinding, high speed milling and spark erosion in conjunction with a polishing step. Recent development in the ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting of tool steels with a diamond tool has significantly improved the possibilities to generate low surface roughness and high accuracy steel inserts for optical quality moulding. This study will go through manufacturing and metrology of an ultrasonic assisted diamond turned optical quality freeform W720 tool steel insert. Nanometric level surface roughness accuracy was reached on the insert and profilometer scan traces were fitted against a STEP file of the part within few microns accuracy. The process is quite suitable for making low aspect ratio and gently sloped freeform steel inserts.