Karbala, Iraq
Karbala, Iraq

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Al-Douh M.H.,Yemen University of Science and Technology | Sahib H.B.,Karbala University | Osman H.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Hamid S.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Salhimi S.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Benzimidazoles 1-4 were obtained using modified synthesis methods and studied for their ability to inhibit cell proliferation of colon cancer cell HCT-116 and breast cancer cell MCF-7 using MTT assays. In the HCT-116 cell line, benzimidazole 2 was found to have an IC50 value of 16.2±3.85 μg/mL and benzimidazole 1 a value of 28.5±2.91 μg/mL, while that for benzimidazole 4 was 24.08±0.31 μg/mL. In the MCF-7 cell line, benzimidazole 4 had an IC50 value of 8.86±1.10 μg/mL, benzimidazole 2 a value of 30.29±6.39 μg/mL, and benzimidazole 1 a value of 31.2±4.49 μg/mL. Benzimidazole 3 exerted no cytotoxity in either of the cell lines, with IC50 values >50 μg/mL. The results suggest that benzimidazoles derivatives may have chemotherapeutic potential for treatment of both colon and breast cancers.

Al-Hamood A.,University of Cardiff | Al-Hamood A.,Karbala University | Clarke A.,University of Cardiff | Evans H.,University of Cardiff
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology | Year: 2015

Experimental and theoretical analyses are reported to study the heat generation and partition in an elastohydrodynamic rolling/sliding point contact. Heat is generated within the lubricant in the Hertzian region by shearing and compression of the oil film. This heat is essentially conducted to the contacting surfaces as the amount convected from the Hertzian zone by the lubricant can be neglected due to the very low lubricant mass flowrate. A two-disk test rig was used for the experimental tests using crowned, superfinished 76.2 mm diameter disks fixed on parallel shafts. Each disk was fitted with six thermocouples in two rows of three located 3 mm and 6 mm below the surface to measure the temperature distribution of the disks during the tests. In addition, the disks were insulated on both plane sides by ceramic washers to minimise heat transfer to the surroundings over those surfaces. A numerical model was developed to calculate the circumferential mean disk temperature distribution in the outer 6 mm annular ring using the inner row of thermocouples to provide a boundary condition. The model was used to predict the temperature distribution for given values of the fraction of the total heat entering the fast disk, β, and the heat transfer coefficient, h, for the disk running surfaces. Minimisation of error between predicted and experimentally measured temperatures at the thermocouple positions, together with consideration of the physical relationship between fast and slow shaft heat transfer coefficients led to the conclusion that β lies in the range 0.71-0.77 for the experiments reported in the paper and that approximately 75% of the frictional heat dissipated within the lubricant film flows into the faster disk. This result indicates that the likely mechanism of heat dissipation within the lubricant film is by slip at or near the faster surface and that consideration of heat partition is a more discerning judge of lubricant rheological behaviour than the usual consideration of traction measurements alone. © IMechE 2014.

Ahmed L.M.,Karbala University | Ivanova I.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Hussein F.H.,University of Babylon | Bahnemann D.W.,Leibniz University of Hanover
International Journal of Photoenergy | Year: 2014

Titania modified nanoparticles have been prepared by the photodeposition method employing platinum particles on the commercially available titanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100). The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-visible diffuse spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). XRD was employed to determine the crystallographic phase and particle size of both bare and platinised titanium dioxide. The results indicated that the particle size was decreased with the increasing of platinum loading. AFM analysis showed that one particle consists of about 9 to 11 crystals. UV-vis absorbance analysis showed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength for 0.5% Pt loading compared with bare titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Pt-loaded TiO2 was investigated employing the photocatalytic oxidation and dehydrogenation of methanol. The results of the photocatalytic activity indicate that the platinized titanium dioxide samples are always more active than the corresponding bare TiO2 for both methanol oxidation and dehydrogenation processes. The loading with various platinum amounts resulted in a significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. This beneficial effect was attributed to an increased separation of the photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers. © 2014 Luma M. Ahmed et al.

Ewadh H.A.,Karbala University | Neham S.S.,Technical Institute of Karbala
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport | Year: 2011

In the absence of reliable accident records, the traffic conflict technique is a suitable alternative method for use to conduct a study of traffic safety. The present research aimed to conduct such a study at four leg-signalised intersections using the traffic conflict technique. Surveys which included traffic conflict, volume data, spot speed and some geometric characteristics were carried out at four sites in Baghdad city. Rate quality control and cluster analysis were used to identify the hazardous approach and the abnormal conflict types, respectively. The developed models. showed that percentages ranging from 70 1 to 88 4% of variation in hourly traffic conflict could be determined by linear relationships with hourly approach traffic volume. Although this finding agrees with the literature, an. Exponential relationship introduced high percentages of determination ranging from 75 9 to 89 7%. This might be due to an extra increase in conflicts at high traffic volume. The identification of hazardous approaches showed that the lower rank in geometric characteristics among all approaches was the most hazardous one. This agrees with the findings from the developed model. In order to enhance traffic safety, the study proposes suitable countermeasures such as creating a left-turn lane and providing a special phase for left-turning traffic.

Akiyama Y.,5 Turnham Ln | Nolan J.,West Virginia University | Darrah M.,West Virginia University | Abdal Rahem M.,West Virginia University | And 2 more authors.
Information Sciences | Year: 2016

This paper presents a new index of disagreement (or measure of consensus) for comparison of data collected using Likert items. This new index, which assesses the level of disagreement among group members, exploits the conditional distribution of the variance for a given mean. The variance is often used as a measure of disagreement, with high variance seen as a high disagreement in a group. However, since the range of the variance is a function of the mean, this implies that for a mean close to the end points of the scale, the range of the variance is relatively small and for a mean at the center of the scale the range of the variance is larger. The index of disagreement introduced in this paper takes into account both the mean and the variance and provides a way to compare two groups that is more meaningful than just considering the variance or other measures of disagreement or consensus that only depend on the variance. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Abbas Z.H.,Karbala University | Doosh K.S.,University of Baghdad | Yaseen N.Y.,The University of Mustansiriyah
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Lactoferrin is an important protein in many biological applications as a potential cancer treatment agent. In this study, lactoferrin was purified from goat colostrum by ion exchange chromatography through CM-Sephadex C-50 column and gel filtration chromatography through Sephadex G-200 column. The purification fold and yield were (20.83 time and 62.50%) respectively. The purity of lactoferrin to homogeneity was examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE) with single bond. Some biochemical characteristics of the purified Lactoferrin were determined, The molecular weight of LF were 80 and 79.50kDa as determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE respectively. The percentage of carbohydrate content in goat Lactoferrin was 10.4%, mean while the Iron percentage was 123 ppm and as a saturated percent 7.8%. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.

Ali J.H.,Karbala University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2013

DFT method within Gaussian 03 program was used to calculate the minimum energy geometries and the (3N-6=30) fundamental vibration frequencies for the molecules: 2-chlorofulvene, 3-chlorofulvene, 6-chlorofulvene, chlorobenzene and the fulvene. It was shown that all the molecules except chlorobenzene, belong to Cs point group symmetry; the more stable isomer is the 2-chlorofulvene. The 3-chlorofulvene has the higher frequency values for the fundamental vibrations associated with the methylene group.

Muhsin J.J.,Nahrain University | Tolephih M.H.,Karbala University | Muhammed A.M.,Nahrain University | Sadiq G.S.,Nahrain University
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

Plates of aluminum alloys 7020-T53 were joined in a butt joint by friction stir welding. The residual stresses were measured using the hole-drilling strain-gauge method on the mid position of welding line at three places (advance side, nugget and retreate side). In this investigation, three-dimensional numerical simulation of friction stir welding was concerned to study the influence of tool moving speed in relation with heat distribution as well as residual stress. Simulation was composed of two stages. Firstly, transient temperature distribution on the work piece while undergoing the welding process was studied. In the second stage, attained thermal behavior of the piece from previous stage is considered as inlet heat of an elasto-plastic, thermo mechanical model for the prediction of residual stress. In experimental results, the temperatures are higher on the advancing side than the retreating side along welding, and it was found that the residual stresses on the advance side at about 116.61MPa, while the value reached 90.84MPa for the weld at nugget in retreate side residual stress was107.5MPa and numerical results had the conventional "M" profile with tensile str peaks in the heat-affected zone. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Ahmed L.M.,Karbala University | Hussein F.H.,University of Babylon | Mahdi A.A.,University of Babylon
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

Nanosized titanium dioxide particles (Hombikat UV 100) doped with different percentages of platinum metal was prepared by photodeposition method. Crystallite size and photocatalytic activity was characterized by X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy, spontaneously. Spectrophotometer measurements have been used to determine the concentration of formed formaldehyde following Nash method at a wavelength 412 nm. Doped titanium dioxide was found more active than naked one in the existence of oxygen gas. However, naked titanium dioxide was found inactive in the existence of nitrogen gas and the suspension of aqueous methanol solution was converted to grey colour indicating the consuming of titanium dioxide lattice oxygen. The effect of loading of platinum on titanium dioxide was studied in the range 0.25-1 %. Platinized titanium dioxide with a loading of 0.5 wt % of platinum appeared to be the most active photocatalyst in the selective partial dehydrogenation of methanol. Photocatalytic dehydrogenation was made over the temperature range 278-298 K, using UVA radiation. Activation energies for formaldehyde formation were found identical on naked and platinized Hombikat (23 ± 1 kJ mol -1). The identical activation energy for the photocatalytic dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol solution over platinized and naked titanium dioxide in the presence of oxygen is believed to be associated with the transport of photoelectrons through the catalyst to the adsorbed oxygen or metal on the surface of titanium dioxide.

PubMed | Karbala University and University of Technology Malaysia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Water pollution during festival periods is a major problem in all festival cities across the world. Reliable prediction of water pollution is essential in festival cities for sewer and wastewater management in order to ensure public health and a clean environment. This article aims to model the biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), and total suspended solids (TSS) parameters in wastewater in the sewer networks of Karbala city center during festival and rainy days using structural equation modeling and multiple linear regression analysis methods. For this purpose, 34 years (1980-2014) of rainfall, temperature and sewer flow data during festival periods in the study area were collected, processed, and employed. The results show that the TSS concentration increases by 26-46 mg/l while BOD(5) concentration rises by 9-19 mg/l for an increase of rainfall by 1 mm during festival periods. It was also found that BOD(5) concentration rises by 4-17 mg/l for each increase of 10,000 population.

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