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Ahmad S.,Combined Military Hospital | Hussain S.,Karakorum International University
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2017

Objective: To screen out psychiatric ‘cases’ and find the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in military volunteers performing duties at very high altitudes in the Karakoram ranges of Pakistan. Methods: This was a descriptive study lasting from Jan 2015 to June 2015, on volunteers serving at very high altitude, using General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Urdu versions. Analysis involved descriptive, inferential techniques and Bonferroni test. Demographic variables were compared to the scores. Results: A high percentage of the military volunteers screened positive for psychiatric ‘caseness’ and symptoms of anxiety and depression; mostly in the mild to moderate range, while very few of them reported severe symptoms. Demographic variables such as marital status, number of children, positive family psychiatric history, past medical history, duration at high altitude and educational levels were found to be significant risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Individuals performing duties at very high altitude, experience symptoms of anxiety and depression, their demographics are important in understanding their emotional problems. © 2017, Professional Medical Publications. All rights reserved.


Wasim M.,Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology | Ali M.,Karakorum International University | Iqbal S.,Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2015

The Northern Areas of Pakistan is known for its relatively higher radioactivity level. No study has been conducted for Nagar, which is located at 2,590 m above sea level (ASL) and Shigar at 2,300 m ASL. Soil samples were collected from the two cities and gamma-emitting radionuclides were assayed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations, average air absorbed dose rate, average annual effective dose and three hazard indices namely the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and internal hazard index were calculated. The risk to human was estimated using the excess life-time cancer risk for people living in the two cities. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Abro G.H.,Sindh Agriculture University | Abro G.H.,Cornell University | Syed T.S.,Sindh Agriculture University | Kalhoro A.N.,Sindh Agriculture University | And 4 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most destructive insect pests of crucifer crops in Pakistan and other parts of the world where crucifers are grown. It has displayed an ability to develop resistance to most insecticides rapidly due to a range of biochemical and behavioral factors. Two factors affecting toxicity of insecticides, host plants and insecticide synergists, were assessed under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of different insecticides varied significantly and feeding by P.xylostella on different host plants sometimes significantly affected their toxicity. Against P.xylostella collected in Pakistan, the insect growth regulator chlorfluazuron was the most toxic compound (LC50 of 0.0006mga.i.ml-1) and dimethoate was the least toxic (LC50 of 76.6mga.i.ml-1). Feeding on different hosts significantly affected toxicity of some insecticides. For example, when larvae were fed rocket plants, Eurica sativa, the LC50 of λ-cyhalothrin was 0.105mga.i.ml-1 whilst it was 0.035a.i.ml-1 when larvae were fed cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The LC50 values of lufenuron, profenofos, λ-cyhalothrin, spinosad and avermectin alone were 1.14, 8.67, 0.0418, 0.37, and 0.013mga.i.ml-1, respectively. With some, but not all insecticides, a low but sometimes significant level of synergism was recorded with use of the synergists piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Syed T.S.,Sindh Agriculture University | Abro G.H.,Sindh Agriculture University | Awan M.S.,Karakorum International University | Sattar M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Three life table studies of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied during 2008-2009 at Tando Allahyar, Sindh, Pakistan in the cauliflower plants under field conditions. First study was carried out during autumn season that is, October-November 2008, the second study during winter season (January-February 2009) and the third study during spring season (March 2009). To describe the mortality processes of immature stages of P. xylostella, the data on population census were recorded on alternate days from 50 randomly selected plants. All immature stages i.e., eggs, larvae and pupae were recorded. Various predators and parasitoids were recorded feeding upon immature stages of P. xylostella. Predators included various species of ants and spiders, coccinellid beetles and Chrysoperla sp. Cotesia plutellae and Oomyzus sokolowskii were important larval and pupal parasitoids, respectively. There was relatively low parasitoid pressure during summer as compared to winter and spring. Copyright © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Shah S.,Dalian University of Technology | Shah S.,Karakorum International University | Hao C.,Dalian University of Technology
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) have been observed to undergo direct and indirect photodegradation in natural water environments. In this study, the density functional theory (DFT) method was employed for the study of direct and indirect photodegradation mechanisms of sulfameter (SME) with excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter (3DOM*) and metal ions. SME was adopted as a representative of SAs, and SO2 extrusion product was obtained with different energy paths in the triplet-sensitized photodegradation of the neutral (SME0) and the anionic (SME−) form of SME. The selected divalent metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+) promoted the triplet-sensitized photodegradation of SME0 but showed an inhibitory effect in triplet-sensitized photodegradation of SME−. The triplet-sensitized indirect photodegradation mechanism of SME was investigated with the three DOM analogues, i.e., 2-acetonaphthone (2-AN), fluorenone (FN), and thioxanthone (TN). Results indicated that the selected DOM analogues are highly responsible for the photodegradation via attacking on amine moiety of SME. According to the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, the triplet-sensitized photodegradation mechanism of SME0 with 2-AN, FN, and TN was H-transfer, and the SME− was proton plus electron transfer with these DOM analogues. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Hussain F.,University of Karachi | Abid M.,University of Karachi | Shaukat S.S.,University of Karachi | Farzana,University of Karachi | Akbar M.,Karakorum International University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

The antifungal activity of different medicinal and locally available plants extracts (leaves, fruit, seeds) which are usually found in the surrounding of fields or in the fields on some fungi were tested in lab conditions. Six different plants were selected for testing these plants were Acacia nilotica (Lamk.) Willd., Azadirachta indica (A.) Juss., Crotalaria juncea L. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Ocimum basilicum L., and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) Dc. These plants showed antifungal activity against the Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. These plants crude extracts of leaves showed inhibition activity against the fungi and suppressed the myclial growth. Over all selected plants exhibited moderate type of inhibition against these above mentioned pathogens. Among these plants, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea showed the most effective results against the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sp. of fungal pathogens. Whereas, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Prosopis juliflora showed least potential of inhibition against all above mentioned fungal pathogens. It is investigated in present studies that Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea can be utilized against the management of fungal diseases particularly Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.


Noor A.,University of Karachi | Khatoon S.,University of Karachi | Ahmed M.,University of Karachi | Razaq A.,Karakorum International University
Bangladesh Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

In Astore valley, 26 species of plants under 17 genera and 13 families were found to be used as folkmedicine. The study reveals that the villagers from remote area use medicinal plants for the treatment of joint pain, bone fracture, urine problem, asthma, diabetes, blood pressure and for the treatment of other common ailments. The aborigines also use traditional herbal therapy for their live stocks. Because of high destruction pressure of anthropogenic origin, Ephedra gerardiana Wallich ex C.A.Meyer, Berberis spp., Rosa foetida Herrm. and Rhododendron hypenanthum Balf. f. were found threatened.


Shafique M.,University of Peshawar | van der Meijde M.,University of Twente | Khan M.A.,University of Peshawar | Khan M.A.,Karakorum International University
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in northern Pakistan has triggered thousands of landslides, which was the second major factor in the destruction of the build-up environment, after earthquake-induced ground shaking. Subsequent to the earthquake, several researchers from home and abroad applied a variety of remote sensing techniques, supported with field observations, to develop inventories of the earthquake-triggered landslides, analyzed their spatial distribution and subsequently developed landslide-susceptibility maps. Earthquake causative fault rupture, geology, anthropogenic activities and remote sensing derived topographic attributes were observed to have major influence on the spatial distribution of landslides. These were subsequently used to develop a landslide susceptibility map, thereby demarcating the areas prone to landsliding. Temporal studies monitoring the earthquake-induced landslides shows that the earthquake-induced landslides are stabilized, contrary to earlier belief, directly after the earthquake. The biggest landslide induced dam, as a result of the massive Hattian Bala landslide, is still posing a threat to the surrounding communities. It is observed that remote sensing data is effectively and efficiently used to assess the landslides triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, however, there is still a need of more research to understand the mechanism of intensity and distribution of landslides; and their continuous monitoring using remote sensing data at a regional scale. This paper, provides an overview of remote sensing and GIS applications, for the Kashmir-earthquake triggered landslides, derived outputs and discusses the lessons learnt, advantages, limitations and recommendations for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Shabozoi N.U.K.,Sindh Agriculture University | Abro G.H.,Sindh Agriculture University | Syed T.S.,Sindh Agriculture University | Awan M.S.,Karakorum International University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Field studies were conducted to determine the comparative effect of neem and tobacco based synthetic insecticides and use of natural enemies on insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Maximum mean population of insect pests was recorded in control, while it was minimum on okra fields treated with synthetic insecticides as compared to botanical treated fields. Population of natural enemies viz. lady bird beetles, Chrysoperla spp. spiders and predatory bugs was minimum in synthetic insecticides treated fields compared to botanical treated fields. There was negative a correlation between insect pests and natural enemies population. It was concluded that biopesticides are safe to natural enemies and integration of biopesticides with natural enemies have a good impact on crop yield parameters. The cost benefit ratio was maximum in case of biosal followed by natural enemies as compared to the application of synthetic insecticides. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Khan S.,University of Peshawar | Asif Khan M.,Karakorum International University
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2016

Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a special nuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve as a source of seismic amplification that may enhance the seismic shaking of many folds. Determination of the thickness of the soft sediments is therefore crucial in seismic hazard analysis. A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency and amplitude spectrum obtained from the noise measurements during the recording of natural seismicity can be used to obtain thickness of soft sediments covering the bedrock. Nakamura (1989) presented a technique to determine such spectrum using ratio of horizontal to vertical components of the Rayleigh waves. The present study is based on an extensive set of microtremor measurements carried out in the Islamabad city, Pakistan. Fundamental frequencies were obtained from weak motion sensors and Tromino Engy Plus instruments to show that the correlation is clearly valid for a wide range of sediment thickness. A simple formula was derived for the investigated area to determine directly the thickness of sediments from the main peaks in the H/V spectrum for seismometer and Tromino data separately. A comparison is made between sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study with those given in literature to demonstrate a positive correlation. The correlation of instrumental resonant frequencies with calculated resonant frequencies (theoretical) suggests that the relation derived from the noise measurements mostly depends on the velocity depth function of the shear wave. The fundamental frequency of the main peak of spectral ratio of H/V using the both instruments correlates well with the thickness of sediments at the site obtained from the borehole data. It is found out that there is a wide variation in soft-sediment thickness in the Islamabad area, but as a general rule, soft sediments are thicker adjacent to stream courses compared to the areas intervening the streams. The distribution of sediments in the studied area is illustrated by means of cross sections constructed from results of the microtremor analyses and available borehole data, which provides a visual distribution of the soft sediments underlying the Islamabad city. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

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