Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan
Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan

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Sultan M.T.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Buttxs M.S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Qayyum M.M.N.,Karakoram International University | Suleria H.A.R.,National University of Sciences and Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

In the domain of nutrition, exploring the diet-health linkages is major area of research. The outcomes of such interventions led to widespread acceptance of functional and nutraceutical foods; however, augmenting immunity is a major concern of dietary regimens. Indeed, the immune system is incredible arrangement of specific organs and cells that enabled humans to carry out defense against undesired responses. Its proper functionality is essential to maintain the body homeostasis. Array of plants and their components hold immunomodulating properties. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhanced immunity against diseases. The review intended to highlight the importance of garlic (Allium sativum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), purple coneflower (Echinacea), black cumin (Nigella sativa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Astragalus and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as natural immune boosters. These plants are bestowed with functional ingredients that may provide protection against various menaces. Modes of their actions include boosting and functioning of immune system, activation and suppression of immune specialized cells, interfering in several pathways that eventually led to improvement in immune responses and defense system. In addition, some of these plants carry free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities that are helpful against cancer insurgence. Nevertheless, interaction between drugs and herbs/botanicals should be well investigated before recommended for their safe use, and such information must be disseminated to the allied stakeholders. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Butt M.S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Ahmad R.S.,The University of Faisalabad | Sultan M.T.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Qayyum M.M.N.,Karakoram International University | Naz A.,National University of Sciences and Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components. © 2015, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Razaq A.,Karakoram International University | Shahzad S.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

During a survey of basidiomycetous fungi, eight species belonging to order Boletales were collected from different parts of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The collected members of phylum Basidiomycota included Aureoboletus gentilis, Boletus reticulatus and B. subtomentosus belonging to family Boletaceae, and Suillus bovinus, S. granulatus, S. luteus, S. placidus and S. viscidus belonging to family Suillaceae. Of these, Aureoboletus gentilis, Boletus reticulatus, B. subtomentosus, S. bovinus, S. luteus and S. viscidus appeared to be new records from Pakistan not hitherto reported. © 2016, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Ali S.,Karakoram International University | Masud T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Abbasi K.S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In order to ascertain physico-chemical, functional and geometrical traits of apricot fruit from Northern Areas of Pakistan, six predominantly grown varieties namely, Alman, Habi, Khakhas, Mirmalik, Neeli and Shai were selected in this study. Proximate composition as crude fat (2.1-3%), crude protein (6.18-8.7%), crude fiber (11.85-13.6%), ash (9.45-12.1%) and total sugars (56.8-64.9%) were determined on dry weight basis. The data showed variations among the investigated parameters in all varieties. Functional properties of apricot fruit viz. ascorbic acid (67.39-90.94 mg/100 g), total phenolic compounds (4590-7310 mgGAE/100 g), total carotenoids (10.09-18.13 mg/100 g β-carotene) and antioxidant activity (56.84-82.33%) were also recorded. The data pertaining to mineral contents (mg/100 g) revealed K as the predominant element (2040-3000) followed by P, Mg, Ca, Na and Fe among all the tested samples. Furthermore, geometrical characters of apricot varieties were also determined as important sensory and technological attributes on fresh weight basis. The result from the present study showed that all the tested varieties are highly nutritious and rich in functional components. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Razaq A.,Karakoram International University | Shahzad S.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

During a survey of macrofungi, nine species belonging to order Polyporales of Phylum Basidiomycota viz., Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Heteroporus biennis, Laetiporus sulphureus, Phaeolus schwinitzii, Polyporus squamosus, Rigidoporus ulmarius, Royoporus badius and Trametes versicolor were collected for the first time from Gilgit- Baltistan. Of these, Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Heteroporus biennis, Phaeolus schwinitzii, Rigidoporus ulmarius, Royoporus badius and Trametes versicolor appeared to be new records from Pakistan not hitherto reported. © 2016, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Abbas H.,University of Karachi | Qaiser M.,University of Karachi | Khan S.W.,Karakoram International University
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Convolvulus scindicus Stocks is an endangered taxon in the southern region of Pakistan. It is exposed to hostile environmental conditions and subjected to various threats including habitat loss, grazing activities and soil erosion. There is a need to take steps for its protection to avoid its extirpation. In this connection an in vitro propagation and conservation protocol was established to study its response to different growth hormones. Fresh seeds were collected from the wild, germinated in vitro and then seedlings were grown aseptically to obtain explant. The cultures maintained on MS medium containing various growth hormones for 6-7 months. 2.5 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l Kin and 0.5 mg/l NAA induced maximum number of 8.20 shoots per explant with 56% shoot regeneration frequency. Well developed shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 2 mg/l IAA with maximum number of roots (1.50) per explant and maximum rooting frequency of 67%.

Cassar D.J.,University of East Anglia | Ilyashenko G.,University of East Anglia | Ismail M.,University of East Anglia | Ismail M.,Karakoram International University | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

The reaction of (η5-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)cyclopentadien- yl)(η4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt with sodium tetrachloropalladate and (R)-N-acetylphenylalanine gave planar chiral palladacycle di-μ-chloridebis[(η5-(Sp)-2-(N,N- dimethylaminomethyl)cyclopentadienyl,1-C,3′-N)(η4- tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt]dipalladium [(Sp)-Me 2-CAP-Cl] in 92 % ee and 64 % yield. Enantiopurity (>98 % ee) was achieved by purification of the monomeric (R)-proline adducts and conversion back to the chloride dimer. Treatment with AgOAc gave (Sp)-Me 2-CAP-OAc which was applied to asymmetric transcyclopalladation (up to 78 % ee). The (R)-N-acetylphenylalanine mediated palladation methodology was applicable also to the corresponding N,N-diethyl (82 % ee, 39 % yield) and pyrrolidinyl (>98 % ee, 43 % yield) cobalt sandwich complexes. A combination of 5 mol % of the latter [(Sp)-Pyrr-CAP-Cl] and AgNO3 (3.8 equiv) is a catalyst for the allylic imidate rearrangement of an (E)-N-aryltrifluoroacetimidate (up to 83 % ee), and this catalyst system is also applicable to the rearrangement of a range of (E)-trichloroacetimidates (up to 99 % ee). This asymmetric efficiency combined with the simplicity of catalyst synthesis provides accessible solutions to the generation of non-racemic allylic amine derivatives. Enantioselective C-H activation: (R)-N-Acetylphenylalanine mediated enantioselective palladation gave a bulky cobalt sandwich complex based amino-palladacycle (Sp)-Pyrr-CAP-Cl in more than 98 % ee (see scheme). Following activation with silver nitrate, the use of 5 mol % of the product catalyst resulted in the highly enantioselective rearrangement of (E)-trichloroacetimidates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Razaq A.,Karakoram International University | Shahzad S.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Lactarius pubescens and L. helvus are being reported for first time from Pakistan whereas L. obscuratus and L. piperatus have been recorded for the first time from Gilgit-Baltistan Valley. These species are characterized by cap at first convex then flattened and depressed or funnel-shaped. Stem slender, equal or Gills narrow, crowded. Test mild. Smell faint when fresh, strong when dry. Exuding milky substance when cut. Spores ellipsoid, smooth or sub reticulate.

Olimov K.K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Olimov K.K.,Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan | Haseeb M.Q.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Hadi S.A.,Karakoram International University
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2013

The average spectral temperatures of negative pions in 12C 12C collisions at 4.2A GeV/c were extracted from transverse momentum as well as scaled center-of-mass kinetic energy distributions for different intervals of rapidity and emission angle of π- in the center-of-mass system (cms) of 12C12C collisions. The temperatures extracted from experimental spectra of negative pions were compared systematically with the corresponding temperatures deduced from spectra of π- calculated using Modified FRITIOF model. The dependence of the average spectral temperatures of negative pions on the rapidity and emission angle of π- in the cms of 12C12C collisions at 4.2A GeV/c was analyzed. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Wang H.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Liu G.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ullah A.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ullah A.,Karakoram International University | Luan J.,University of Science and Technology Beijing
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Topological correlations of three-dimensional grains were investigated by Monte Carlo-Potts model simulation. The result shows that, unlike first nearest neighbors (the Aboav-Weaire law [D. Aboav, Metallography 3, 383 (1970) and D. Weaire, Metallography 7, 157 (1974)] holds), there appears to be very little correlation between grains and their second and third nearest neighbors (on average), i.e., the average number of faces of second nearest neighbors, m 2, and third nearest neighbors, m 3, are independent of faces f of the center grain (nearly m 2 14.984 and m 3 14.489). This result indicates that long range correlations beyond first nearest neighbors may have negligible effect on the growth of center grains and thus provides support to a topologically averaged growth law that only considered the non-random first nearest-neighbor interactions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

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