Glendale, CA, United States
Glendale, CA, United States

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Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.95K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: The objective of the project is to develop models for secondary debris generated by mobile targets. This includes the vehicle component breakup due to expanding high explosives and primary fragments as well as the associated airblast that propagates into the environment propelling secondary fragments from the vehicle. The overall scope of the project involves developing the computational and testing methodologies needed to generate mobile target secondary debris (MTSD) data, generating a suite of virtual or real test data, and develop a limited-scope prototype software tool suitable for MTSD that is available for use at the conclusions of the project. The scope involves (1) developing HFPB computational methodologies capable of computing the detonation of the explosive, the breakup of the weapon casing, the expansion of the detonation products, the fracture and breakup of the pickup truck components, and the residual blast and debris fly out into the environment including the effects of air drag.; (2) outline the data collection and cataloging process needed for a typical MTSD test; (3) generating a suite of data for use in developing a limited-scope MTSD fast-running model; (4) developing a limited-scope prototype software tool suitable for weaponeering applications. BENEFIT: The objectives at the conclusion of this SBIR effort are to produce a fast-running tool for predicting MTSD and publication of accepted methodologies and procedures for cost effective testing and collection of secondary debris data to support future FRM enhancement, development, and/or validation. The published reports will be a complete recipe for test instrumentation and setup, data collection, data reduction, modeling and simulation, FRM development, and validation and verification related to secondary debris generated from blast events. Such publications would be a valuable resource to the Government, in particular the DoD, and contractors that support the government as well as private companies that handle explosives or use industrial processes with an associated blast hazards. Such companies have an interest to quantify and mitigate secondary debris collateral damage from accidental explosions.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Threat Reduction Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.56K | Year: 2012

The objective for the proposed effort is to develop a robust, effective, and deterministic/stochastic means to characterize blast effects from cased explosives pertaining to computing responses of structural components. This also includes creation of appropriate engineering aids/software/algorithms for transforming these blast effects into structural loads suitable for incorporation into high-fidelity physics-based (HFPB) finite element models to compute the response and damage imparted to structural components by munitions. This is to be accomplished in a way that preserves the basic physics-based nature of such blast effects and the uncertainties inherent to this type of problem.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.98K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:Karagozian and Case, Inc. (K&C) proposes to develop a Rigid-Body Off-Axis Ordnance Shock And Tail-Slap Environment Replicator (ROOSTER) concept which can induce peak accelerations over 10,000 g for sustained periods of at least 5 ms to sub-scale non-inventory warheads in order to replicate the harsh and complex deceleration environment experienced by ordnance during penetration. The concept takes advantage of the known strengths of at least two different types of dynamic loaders to accelerate a pseudo-static test penetrator, and a proven approach to subsequently arrest it. The concept consists of three key elements, each targeting an essential component of the required acceleration response. The first is an impact-driven loader that acts to generate the desired peak accelerations over a very short time-frame. The second element, adds a second dynamic loader that acts on the test penetrator over a much longer duration. The loaders used for this element leverages strain-energy or fast-acting hydraulically-driven loaders, which are far more effective during this time-frame. The final essential component consists of an arrestment basin, which acts to catch and decelerate the test article, since the test apparatus will send it traveling at significant velocities.BENEFIT:The proposed test fixture closely mimic the penetration phenomenology providing realistic axial accelerations on the penetrator body and can also induce realistic lateral accelerations by a simple modification of the test setup. This test fixture will enable the Air Force to adequately test the next generation of fuzing technologies which are needed to meet increasingly challenging requirements, for enhanced penetration capabilities. Furthermore, the ability to model high-velocity impact scenarios will provide opportunities to test and enhance the protection of storage for hazardous/nuclear waste, especially during transit.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.98K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:The overall goal for this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a methodology to develop advanced cumulative-damage models that predict time-dependent reinforced concrete (RC)-bunker wall deflection, spalling, breach, secondary debris generation, and the incremental wall damage state from multiple weapon detonations. This effort builds on previous work conducted by K&C and ACTA in (1) analytically modeling the behaviors of walls to multiple hits and (2) developing a High Fidelity Physics Based (HFPB) fast-running model (FRM) for modeling cumulative damage resulting from multi-hits scenarios. In this proposal an advanced cumulative damage FRM (ACD-FRM), incorporating the complicated physics involved in multiple loadings leading to local and global failure of RC components will be developed. The methodology proposed to develop the ACD-FRM is general in nature and can be readily extended to other structural components or systems and for loadings other than blast and fragmentation. The broad methodology developed under this effort will provide a rational approach for the stochastic consideration of accumulated or cyclic damage and has broad applicability across a range of industries where consideration of accumulated damage and the associated requirements for repair, maintenance and replacement is critical, such as the energy, utility and transportation industries.BENEFIT:As a science and engineering consulting company actively involved in a multitude of government and private industries including building construction, defense, anti-terrorism, petrochemical plant safety, and nuclear plant and infrastructure safety, K&C is in an excellent position to market, commercialize, and transition the technologies developed under this project. These clients, especially related to their overseas operations, have particular concerns related to the risks engendered by blast and fragmentation loading as well as cumulative damage effects. The U.S. defense community is another clear market for this technology, which also has interest in the resilience of structures and having the ability to evaluate the effects of cumulative damage. In this regard, the stochastic approach to be taken to modeling cumulative damage will be especially of interest since the probability of a particular outcome in a cumulative damage targeting problem should reflect the uncertainties involved if it is to be useful.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.98K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:Karagozian and Case, Inc. (K&C) proposes to develop experimental methods and material models that can be used to safely and accurately extract the required fundamental properties of as-received composite SRM materials needed to understand their dynamic fragmentation characteristics. K&Cs proposed approach consists of: (1) designing a suite of experiments and measurements, using dynamic recovery methods, that can be used to dynamically fracture SRM cases under controllable loads and rates of deformation and measure their fragmentation properties; (2) developing analytic or numerical models or algorithms that can be used to correlate these fragmentation characteristics to fundamental material properties that can be obtained through non-destructive testing; (3) performing a set of limited proof-of-concept tests on a suitable material sample to demonstrate feasibility of our approach; and (4) augmenting our existing material and fragmentation models for quasi-brittle materials to accept the measured material properties and demonstrating their use in Computational Solid Dynamics (CSD) calculations of fractured composite SRM casings.BENEFIT:The proposed test and modeling methodology for material characterization and non-destructive testing are likely to find several non-military applications. The potential to combine the developed understanding of material fracture processes and the ability to predict them utilizing simple measurements from non-destructive techniques, including acoustic or laser sensors, would present a unique tool to assess the in-situ condition of various materials. For example, the inspection and condition monitoring of energy distribution networks and utility pipelines is a potentially large market, both in the US and overseas.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.99K | Year: 2014

Karagozian & Case (K & C) is pleased to submit this proposal to conduct a nine-month Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) feasibility study aimed at developing electrical and physiochemical models for electromagnetic radiation (EMR) effects on energetic materials (EMs). There is an expressed need in US Air Force SBIR topic AF141-131 to conduct innovative research on EMR effects on EMs and develop models useful to understanding causes of inadvertent ignition of munitions and predicting energy output under various physical, chemical, and EMR conditions. The models we propose to develop will incorporate all physical, chemical, temporal, and EMR parameters relevant to various classes of EMs exposed to a wide-range of EMR conditions. The models will provide insight to safety features needed in the design of munitions and the design of new energetic materials themselves.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.94K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: This proposed Phase II research is based on the results developed by K & C in an earlier Phase I SBIR study where we established the feasibility of (1) analytically modeling the behaviors of walls to multiple hits and (2) developing a High Fidelity Physics Based (HFPB) fast-running model (FRM) for multi-hit analyses of walls. In this proposal a cumulative damage (CD) FRM will focus on RC bunker-type walls and slabs. The methodology proposed to develop the CD-FRM for RC bunkers is general in nature. It can be readily extended to other structural components such as those associated with MOUT type components. In the same manner as our previous single hit FRMs were developed for RC bunkers and MOUT structures. BENEFIT: Given the generality of the analysis and fast-running modeling technology proposed, many non-military applications are possible. One possibility is enhanced risk analysis tools for the earthquake response and resistance to both man-made and accidental blast responses of civil structures. K & C has already marketed some of our FRM codes and engineering services to government and commercial clients. Other potential customers include the Department of State, the Secret Service, DHS, DDESB, FAA, GSA, and all agencies for which consideration of multiple threats is of interestthat is, not just for multiple explosive events, but also for events such as an explosive detonation followed by a fire. These agencies would also be interested in several forms of this type of capability (i.e., to evaluate multi-hit threats and responses to them), for example, besides the damaging of structural components, considerations related to achieving a forced entry, the risk of collapse, and amounts of debris production would be of interest.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.48K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: This proposal is for a 24-month Phase II project to develop innovative High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast-Running Models (FRMs) that simulate the interaction of weapons with structural components of buildings and predict their secondary debris and air blast into adjoining spaces. As stated in Air Force Topic AF103-131, the disintegration of overloaded walls and slabs generates two important secondary effects that can be lethal to personnel, equipment, and structural components located in adjoining rooms; the first is secondary debris from fragmentation of the wall/slab component and the second is secondary air blast that can, in many circumstances, interact with the disintegrating wall and project blast and dynamic pressure loadings. Current HFPB FRMs that are used to predict weapons effectiveness or assess human or building lethality do not account for these effects. This can have negative impacts on collateral damage estimation and weaponeering activities. The DoD needs a new generation of FRMs to improve their prediction capabilities in these areas. BENEFIT: Given the generality of the analysis and fast-running modeling technology proposed, many non-military applications are possible. One possibility is enhanced risk analysis tools for accidental blast responses of civil structures. K & C has already marketed some of our FRM codes and engineering services to government and commercial clients. Other potential customers include the Department of State, the Secret Service, DHS, DDESB, FAA, GSA, and all agencies for which consideration of multiple threats is of interest. The general ability to consider the damage imparted to a component either by successive applications of a single type of threat (e.g., blast) or a combination of threats (e.g., blast followed by a high-energy impact load) is going to be of interest to many who need to consider the risks associated with multiple hazards. This capability, for example, would interest first responders and could be included in DHS programs for developing rapid assessment tools to evaluate the safety of structures that have been involved in situations involving multiple hazards.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.92K | Year: 2016

US Naval ships such as the LPD 17 San Antonio class vessels require transparent armored windows (TAW) in the Pilot House and several control/conflagration stations. The current TAW design used aboard these ships is more than 20 years old and it has several design flaws that adversely affect life span, mission readiness, and replacement cost.There is an expressed need in the US Navy to develop a next-generation TAW that addresses these flaws and significantly enhances readiness, increases the life span of the windows, and reduces operational and maintenance costs. Karagozian and Case (K&C) is developing concept designs to overhaul the TAW system on LPD 17 Class ships using advanced materials and processes as well as an improved mounting system. The K&C concept for a next-generation TAW adopts the use of specialty glasses in a very limited but effective manner that improves performance while avoiding production size issues and cost increases. The next-generation designs are based on mature technologies that are producible and can be transitioned to the warfighter at the end of the Phase II effort for production and full scale testing aboard a Navy ship.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.84K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: The Karagozian & Cases team proposes to develop a predictive toolkit for the mechanical and physicochemical behaviors of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) up to failure, especially for extreme thermo-mechanical loadings. The toolkit will consist of a constitutive model, computer software, and material model parameters. The proposed CMC model will be based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with internal state variables approach and will account for the inelastic, damage and fracture behaviors as well as the degradation and healing scenarios induced in CMCs in high temperatures. The mechanical part of the CMC model will lend itself into an ABAQUS/STANDARD user material Software based on a local loop made of nested fixed-point and NewtonRaphson iterations, while its physicochemical part will be implemented into MATLAB software using a mixed analytical/numerical formulation. A link will be established between both implementations. The CMC model parameters will be determined for a self-healing SiC/SiC CMC developed by the SAFRAN Group and other CMCs that may be of interest to the U.S. Air Force. Several examples, including the prediction of the service life and the understanding of self-healing mechanisms, will be used to validate the CMC model. BENEFIT: The outcome of this proposal is the development of a robust ABAQUS/STANDARD user material (UMAT) software to predict the inelastic, damage and fracture behaviors as well as the healing/degradation mechanisms of CMC materials and structures, especially in extreme thermo-mechanical environments. We will also provide a set of CMC material model parameters for the self-healing SiC/SiC CMC, developed by the SAFRAN Group and other CMCs of interest to the U.S. Air Force.

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