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Karagandy, Kazakhstan

Nesterik E.V.,Karaganda State University | Issina G.I.,Karaganda State University | Pecherskikh T.F.,Karaganda State Medical University | Belikova O.V.,Karaganda State University
International Journal of Environmental and Science Education

The article is devoted to the subjective perception of time, or psychological time, as a text category and a literary image. It focuses on the visual images that are characteristic of different types of literary time-accelerated, decelerated and frozen (vanished). The research is based on the assumption that the category of subjective perception of time expresses different concepts and is formed through different text categories, including the category of visual evaluation. The main objective of the research is to determine the role played by the linguistic means expressing the category of visual evaluation in modelling subjective perception of time in a literary text. To attain the posed objective we have accomplished a number of tasks by means of the following linguistic methods: the method of contextual, component and stylistic analysis and the method of classification. The authors conclude that the linguistic means of expression of visual evaluation, i.e. words denoting colour and light, play an important role in modelling psychological time in a literary text, since they allow a reader to "see" the flow of time in a character’s mind. © 2016 Fedorenko and Bykova. Open Access terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Source

Cooley D.,North Dakota State University | Chesnokova I.,Karaganda State Medical University
Developing World Bioethics

The topic of abortion has been extensively researched, and the research has produced a large number of arguments and discussions. Missing in the literature, however, are discussions of practices in some areas of the Developing or Third World. In this paper, we examine the morality of sex selection abortions in Kazakhstan's Kazakh culture, and argue that such abortions can be ethically justified based, in part, on the unique perspectives of Kazakh culture. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Shusterov Y.,Karaganda State Medical University
Georgian medical news

Correction of high degree myopia, anisometropia and astigmatism continues to remain one of actual problems of ophthalmology. The purpose of the present work - the analysis of results of application of refractive interlamellar tunnel keratoplasty variants. We develop 6 updatings tunnel keratoplasty. In total in clinic 310 operations from which in 158 cases as a transfer material used a donor cornea, in 63 cases - brephocornea (a fruit cornea) and in 89 cases - hydrogel synthetic implant, modified in low-temperature to gas-discharge plasma are spent. From the specified number of operative interventions, on 86 eyes of operation tunnel keratoplasty have been spent at those patients by whom earlier it has been given up in carrying out eximerlaser corrections, in connection with presence of a "thin", "flat" and "convex" cornea. Maximum refractive effect fell first two weeks after operation. Definitive stabilisation of a refraction occurred on 2-3 month, thus regress of the reached effect made an order of 10-12 %. It is reached refractive effect from 5,5 to 20,0 D. Undercorrection in some cases made to 3,5 D, that spoke very high myopia (more than 20,0 D) degrees. It has been noticed, that refractive effect of operations with ecsplants was above (on the average on 10 %), than at use of a donor cornea, at identical cross-section section of used transfer materials. It spoke that the synthetic material, unlike a donor cornea, kept the form. At all patients substantial increase of visual acuities has been received, and in 75 % it was equal or exceeded visual acuity before operation with the greatest possible correction. Thus, clinical approbation has proved, that the variants of tunnel keratoplasty, are effective ways of high myopia, anisometropia and astigmatism correction. Updating in gaseous plasma is represented in the perspective way of improvement of biocompatibility of synthetic materials. Source

Kozyreva V.K.,West Virginia University | Ilina E.N.,Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry | Malakhova M.V.,Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry | Carattoli A.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

In this paper, we present evidence of long-term circulation of cefotaxime-resistant clonally related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains over a broad geographic area. The genetic relatedness of 88 isolates collected from multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of nosocomial salmonellosis in various parts of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan from 1996 to 2009 was established by multilocus tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates belong to sequence type 328 (ST328) and produce CTX-M-5 β-lactamase, whose gene is carried by highly related non-self-conjugative but mobilizable plasmids. Resistance to nalidixic acid and low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin is present in 37 (42%) of the isolates and in all cases is determined by various single point mutations in the gyrA gene quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Isolates of the described clonal group exhibit a hypermutable phenotype that probably facilitates independent acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Sarsekeyeva N.,Karaganda State Medical University | Sarsekeyeva N.,Karaganda Regional Center for the Prevention and Control | Kosherova B.,Karaganda State Medical University
International Journal of General Medicine

Aim: To evaluate immunological indices in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) who are injecting drug users. Materials and methods: The study examined 38 patients coinfected with HIV and CHC who were injecting drug users and 36 patients with HIV/CHC who were not injecting drug users. In the study of immune status, the relative and absolute numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD20+ cells were determined by means of flow cytofluorometry of “FACSCount” using monoclonal antibodies of the company Becton Dickinson. The level of circulating immune complexes in blood serum was determined by means of precipitation in polyethylene glycol solution. Results: It was found that T-cell immunodeficiency was developing in patients coinfected with HIV and CHC. T-cell immunodeficiency was characterized by a decrease in the number of T-helpers, mainly for injecting drug users. At the same time, patients coinfected with HIV and CHC experienced markedly elevated levels of circulating immune complexes, mainly among injecting drug users. The evaluation of immunogram indices in injecting drug users coinfected with HIV and CHC, depending on the stage of HIV infection, revealed a greater degree of immune-suppression of T-helper cells in clinical stage III. Conclusion: Our comprehensive immunological study of patients coinfected with HIV and CHC revealed a pronounced dysfunction of the immune system. The comparison of the immune system indices in patients with HIV/CHC showed a more pronounced T-cell suppression in injecting drug users than in patients with HIV/CHC but who were not injecting drug users. © 2016 Sarsekeyeva and Kosherova. Source

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