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Gastineau R.,CNRS Sea, Molecules and Health | Turcotte F.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Pouvreau J.-B.,CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Vegetal Biology and Pathology | Morancais M.,CNRS Sea, Molecules and Health | And 22 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

In diatoms, the main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. The marine pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia has long been known for producing, in addition to these generic pigments, a water-soluble blue pigment, marennine. This pigment, responsible for the greening of oysters in western France, presents different biological activities: allelopathic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and growth-inhibiting. A method to extract and purify marennine has been developed, but its chemical structure could hitherto not be resolved. For decades, H. ostrearia was the only organism known to produce marennine, and can be found worldwide. Our knowledge about H. ostrearia-like diatom biodiversity has recently been extended with the discovery of several new species of blue diatoms, the recently described H. karadagensis, H. silbo sp. inedit. and H. provincialis sp. inedit. These blue diatoms produce different marennine-like pigments, which belong to the same chemical family and present similar biological activities. Aside from being a potential source of natural blue pigments, H. ostrearia-like diatoms thus present a commercial potential for aquaculture, cosmetics, food and health industries. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Gastineau R.,CNRS Sea, Molecules and Health | Hansen G.,Copenhagen University | Davidovich N.A.,Karadag Nature Reserve of the National Academy of science | Davidovich O.,Karadag Nature Reserve of the National Academy of science | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Phycology | Year: 2016

Haslea provincialis Gastineau, Hansen & Mouget, sp. nov., is a new, morphologically semicryptic blue diatom discovered on the French shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Like H. ostrearia and H. karadagensis, H. provincialis shares the capacity to synthesize a marennine-like blue pigment. Sexual reproduction between clones of H. provincialis has been repeatedly observed and resulted in viable initial cells. There were no sexual interactions with sexually competent clones of H. ostrearia or H. karadagensis, as would be expected for a separate biological species. There are strong similarities between the H. provincialis pigment and the marennine produced by H. ostrearia, evidenced by UV-visible spectrophotometry and Raman spectrometry. However, unlike the marennine from H. ostrearia, no differences were found between the extracellular and the intracellular forms of the pigment in H. provincialis. This indicates that the synthesis pathways and excretion mechanisms among the three ‘blue’ Haslea may be species-specific. Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny (based on rbcL, cox1 and SSU V4 DNA sequences) confirmed the distinct position of this species among the blue Haslea species. Haslea provincialis occurs in environments from which H. ostrearia has already been reported (mostly based on the presence of the blue cell vacuoles). Possible species misidentifications and the impact of the complex geological history of the Mediterranean Sea on blue diatom diversification are also discussed. © 2016 British Phycological Society

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