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Mauss V.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde | Fateryga A.V.,Karadag Nature Reserve | Prosi R.,Lerchenstrasse 81
Journal of Hymenoptera Research | Year: 2016

Male and female of Celonites abbreviatus tauricus Kostylev, 1935 are redescribed and a neotype is designated. Based on morphological characters Celonites a. tauricus is synonymized with Celonites spinosus Gusenleitner, 1966 and Celonites abbreviatus invitus Gusenleitner, 1973. The taxon is hypothesized to be reproductively isolated from Celonites abbreviatus Villers, 1789 by differences in the male genitalia and in the colour pattern of the male antennae and is therefore regarded as a separate biospecies named Celonites tauricus. Celonites tauricus is allopatrically distributed with regard to C. abbreviatus and has been recorded from the Crimea, Kos, Asia Minor and Cyprus. Within this range six intraspecific taxa can be separated by morphological characters and colour patterns. Habitat, flower association, flower visiting behaviour, mate seeking behaviour and nesting of C. tauricus are almost similar to C. abbreviatus. Source

Martynova K.V.,Donetsk National University | Fateryga A.V.,Karadag Nature Reserve
Entomological Review | Year: 2015

Chrysidid wasps can be considered the most abundant and sometimes the most important enemies of eumenine wasps. We investigated the nesting biology of 36 species of Eumeninae in Crimea (47% of the Crimean fauna) in 2002–2013. As a result we found 15 species of chrysidid wasps (Chrysis cylindrica, Ch. rutilans, Ch. splendidula, Ch. graelsii, Ch. valesiana, Ch. brevitarsis, Ch. ignita, Ch. impressa, Ch. longula, Ch. pseudobrevitarsis, Ch. ruddii, Ch. sexdentata, Ch. ambigua, Ch. taczanovskii, and Stilbum calens) associated with 16 species of hosts of the subfamily Eumeninae. Thus, 13 new host-parasite associations were discovered and 8 previously known ones were confirmed by direct rearing of chrysidids from the nests of eumenine wasps. The data on the host of Chrysis ambigua were obtained for the first time, and the species itself was recorded for Eastern Europe for the first time. Most of the revealed chrysidid wasps develop as inquilines in the nests of eumenines. The reports by early authors of bees as hosts of these chrysidid species are disputable. At least one of the species reared, Stilbum calens, developed as an orthoparasite in the nests of eumenine wasps. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Gnyubkin V.F.,Karadag Nature Reserve
Russian Journal of Marine Biology | Year: 2015

The valves of a mussel shell are two levers that are joined together by an elastic ligament; their movements are similar to some extent to those made by a human arm at the elbow joint. The ligament is found to have a quasi-elastic property; in the operating range of valve opening, the elastic force of the ligament is proportional to the deformation. A minor mathematical model for the movements of mussel valves is formulated: valve movements performed due to contraction of adductor muscles are considered as movements of an extremely damped spring pendulum. Simulated and actual movements of mussel valves are compared. The viscosity factor during the contraction of adductor muscles is found to be an order of magnitude lower than that during relaxation. This probably results from the differences in the physiological mechanisms of muscle contraction and relaxation. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

News Article | September 12, 2016
Site: http://www.chromatographytechniques.com/rss-feeds/all/rss.xml/all

Researchers at Karadag Nature Reserve in Crimea, Ukraine have taken another step towards unraveling the extent of dolphin communication. It’s long been known that dolphins, who have the highest brain-to-body mass ratio of any creature other than humans, have an advanced form of communication among packs, and can use up to 1,000 types of clicks and whistle sounds to express different emotions. But now a conversation between two individuals has been recorded for the first time. A team of researchers, led by Vyacheslav Ryabov, utilized a two-channel audio system to record a pair of captive Black Sea bottlenose dolphins talking to one another. The duo – Yasha, a male, and Yana, a female – have been living together for the last 20 years in a pool measuring 27 meters by 9.5 meters with a 4 meter depth. The recording system has a frequency band of up to 220 kHz with a dynamic range of 81 dB. The team found that the dolphins would alter the volume and frequency of pulsed clicks to form individual “words” that they combined to form sentences – similar to human speech. Sentences of up to five words were recorded. Another interesting observation the researchers noted was that the dolphins would listen to each other’s sentences fully without interruption before responding. “This language exhibits all the design features present in the human spoken language, this indicates a high level of intelligence and consciousness in dolphins, and their language can be ostensibly considered a highly developed spoken language, akin to the human language” said Ryabov. The study proves that dolphins have the capability of communicating directly with each other, one-on-one. The next step is to determine what the mammals are saying. “Humans must take the first step to establish relationships with the first intelligent inhabitants of the planet Earth by creating devices capable of overcoming the barriers that stand in the way of using languages and in the way of communications between dolphins and people," said Ryabov. The study was published in the journal Mathematics and Physics.

Shorenko K.I.,Karadag Nature Reserve | Davidovich N.A.,Karadag Nature Reserve | Kulikovskiy M.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Davidovich O.I.,Karadag Nature Reserve
Inland Water Biology | Year: 2016

The species boundaries and biogeography of two closely related diatom species, Nitzschia longissima (Bréb.) Grunow and N. rectilonga Takano, are described. Based on the structure and morphological features of frustule valves, a reliable distance between these two species has been determined. It is shown that there is a reproductive barrier between the two species. The distribution of N. longissima and N. rectilonga and the range and character of their natural habitats have been analyzed © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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