Karachi Medical and Dental College

Karachi, Pakistan

Karachi Medical and Dental College

Karachi, Pakistan
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Bano F.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Ahmed A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Parveen T.,University of Karachi | Haider S.,University of Karachi
Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2014

Use of the herbal drugs increasing all over the world due to its minimum side effect. Nigella sativa black seeds used in folk medicine for the promotion of good health and for the treatment of many diseases .The present study is designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats. Neurochemical studies were performed for DA and DOPAC levels in whole rats' brain. Locomotive behavior was observed in novel environment and familiar environment. Elevated plus maze and light dark behavioral modules were used to monitor anxiety in rats. The oral administration of AENS for six weeks increased time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze and light compartment in light dark box. Increased locomotors activity in novel environment (open field) was noticed suggesting that increased in DA level may be related to increased locomotive activity in rats.


Mughal M.A.,Abbasi Shaheed Hospital Karachi | Ramzan M.A.,Abbasi Shaheed Hospital | Parveen S.A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2017

Aim: To find out the association between serum Thrombomodulin (TM) & serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in identifying individuals at risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Pakistani population Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on population of Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 96 subjects were randomly selected and were divided into 3 groups i.e., group A= (control group), group B= (Myocardial Infarction [MI] Patients), group C (Unstable Angina [UA] patients). Each group consists of 32 subjects/patients respectively. The diagnoses were made on the basis of history, E.C.G. & serum Troponin I levels. Serum thrombomodulin (TM), Serum C reactive protein (CRP) were determined by ELISA Kit methods. Independent sample t-testwas conducted for comparison of serum thrombomodulin (TM) level & serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels between these groups. Pearson Correlation Co-Efficient were used to calculate the co relation between Serum thrombomodulin (TM) and Serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels Results: Serum Thrombomodulin levels were significantly higher in control group (p-value 0.00), whereas, Serum CRP, BMI, Blood pressure, serum L.D.L. cholesterol and serum total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in diseased group. Conclusion: The Present study suggests that serum TM levels were high in control group in comparison with diseased group, whereas serum CRP levels were high in diseased group, suggesting inverse relationship between serum TM & CRP in predicting ischemic heart disease.


Abrar H.,Baqai Medical University | Aftab M.T.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Unpredictable outcomes of life saving drugs have been seen in patients who receive different cardioselective drugs for longer periods. Many studies have been conducted to explore these responses. This study shows the down regulation of adrenergic receptors due to chronic use of Lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor as a cause of poor response of adrenaline. Langendroff's technique was used. The data obtained from ten rabbits shows that effective dose of Lisinopril (10mg/kg daily orally) reduces the inotropic and chronotropic effects of adrenaline significantly (p<0.05).Therefore it is suggested to use higher doses of adrenaline in cardiac units in patients who have used therapeutic doses of Lisinopril for longer periods provided it is supported by clinical studies.


Baig N.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Khan M.Z.,University of Karachi
Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2016

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate in terms of morphological changes in the diaphyseal region of appendicular skeleton long bone (femur) of aging female Albino rats with the help of innovatively designed histomorphometric tool of study being introduced first time mapped out micro porosities (lacunae) which tend to intensify as part of advanced aging denoting deterioration in osseous tissue. In fact our research trial has been in the line of involutional osteoporosis especially common in post-menopausal aged women, as to find out appropriate drug usefulness in the care and cure of this diseased state as per recommendation of FDA. An animal experimental research trial was done in strict accordance with the guidelines of the Institutional Animals Ethics Committee(IAEC) and all standard dietary protocols were observed .Rats were separated in two groups comprising of five rats in each . Group A was control and group B was nandrolone decanoate treated 3mg/kg body weight I/M on daily basis for four week duration. On completion of treatment animals were sacrificed, dissection was done and bones were excised. Qualitative histological assessment was worked through SEM, where as the Quantitative data was constructed through a special company fitted software in electron microscope , model "jeol JSM-6380".,the procured data was evaluated statistically and high degree significant variation was detected b/w control and experimental groups. The histomorphometry validated relatively reduced index of BLD in experimental/treated case signifying less resorptive activity in aging bones with the use of nandrolone decanoate.


Ahmed A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Ahmed M.,University of Karachi | Parveen T.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight.


Musani M.A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Zafar A.,Ziauddin University | Suhail Z.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Malik S.,Bahria University | Mirza D.,Bahria University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours.


Tariq H.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Khan O.A.,Baqai Medical University | Aftab M.T.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2016

Various Risk factors initiate Submucous fibrosis which may be augmented by NSAIDs. A number of animal studies on their mechanism indirectly support it especially regarding alterations in prostaglandin synthesis. This study has been designed to find association of these drugs with Oral Submucous fibrosis in the presence of risk factors. Newly diagnosed patients of Oral Sub mucous fibrosis were recruited for this study who attended Dental Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College from July 1 till Dec 31,2013.A structured interview and medical record of each patient was used to determine the demographic profile, any addiction, previous and present illnesses and drug (s) used. Through examination of Oral cavity was carried out to access the severity of disease as per modified Khanna & Andrade Classification (1995). Statistical Analysis was done by SPSS 15. Total 102 patients were recruited from dental OPD as per criteria of inclusion. Among these patients 36 (49.31%) were using NSAIDs in which Acetaminophen (30.55%), Acetylsalicylic acid (25.00%) and Diclophenac (19.44%) were 1st, 2nd and 3rd most common drugs. Data shows that 14 patients (28.88%) had mild and 22(61.11%) had sever fibrosis which was significantly high (P<0.05). Mild fibrosis was seen in 05 (45.46%) and Sever fibrosis in 06 (54.54%) out of total 11 patients who were using NSAIDSs since less than or equal to 6 months. Similarly mild fibrosis was seen in 09 (36.00%) and Sever fibrosis in 16 (64.00%) out of total 25 patients who were on NSAIDs since more than 6 months. No statistical significant difference (P>0.05) in severity of fibrosis is seen in patients who were using NSAIDs since less than or equal to 6 months but statistical significant difference (P<0.05) in severity of fibrosis is seen in patients who on these drugs since more than 6 months. Addiction burden was calculated by Average Duration x Average Frequency, which was 92.72 for Pan, 88.88 for Supari and 61.30 for Miscellaneous. No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in addiction burden of various substances in these patients. An association of NSAIDs with Oral Sub mucous fibrosis exists. The pathology is augmented if these drugs are used in the presence of risk factors. Therefore these drugs should not be prescribed to these patients until a clear benefit is not targeted.


Saleem S.,Dow Medical College | Aslam H.M.,Dow Medical College | Anwar M.,Dow Medical College | Anwar S.,Dow Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2013

Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by abnormal calcified deposits in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Calcified deposits are made up of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, and are commonly located in the Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, Hippocampus, Cerebral cortex, Cerebellar Subcortical white matter and Dentate Nucleus. Molecular genetics of this disease haven't been studied extensively; hence evidence at the molecular and genetic level is limited. Fahr's disease commonly affects young to middle aged adults. Etiology of this syndrome does not identify a specific agent but associations with a number of conditions have been noted; most common of which are endocrine disorders, mitochondrial myopathies, dermatological abnormalities and infectious diseases. Clinical manifestations of this disease incorporate a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from neurological symptoms of extrapyramidal system to neuropsychiatric abnormalities of memory and concentration to movement disorders including Parkinsonism, chorea and tremors amongst others. Diagnostic criteria for this disease has been formulated after modifications from previous evidence and can be stated briefly, it consist of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia, progressive neurologic dysfunction, absence of biochemical abnormalities, absence of an infectious, traumatic or toxic cause and a significant family history. Imaging modalities for the diagnosis include CT, MRI, and plain radiography of skull. Other investigations include blood and urine testing for hematologic and biochemical indices. Disease is as yet incurable but management and treatment strategies mainly focus on symptomatic relief and eradication of causative factors; however certain evidence is present to suggest that early diagnosis and treatment can reverse the calcification process leading to complete recovery of mental functions. Families with a known history of Fahr's disease should be counseled prior to conception so that the birth of affected babies can be prevented. This review was written with the aim to remark on the current substantial evidence surrounding this disease. © 2013 saleem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ather M.H.,Aga Khan University | Siddiqui T.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Arab Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Context Despite producing some of the leading urologists in the world, urological training in the developing world is marred by inconsistency, and a lack of structure and focus on evidence-based practice. In this review we address these issues from the trainers' perspective. Introduction Teaching the art and science of urological practice is a demanding task. It not only involves helping the resident to develop the depth of cognitive knowledge, but also to have an appropriate surgical judgement, and an ability to act quickly but thoughtfully and, when necessary, decisively. Discussion The surgeon must have compassion, communication skills, be perceptive and dedicated. Most importantly, however, he or she should have the ability to cut and suture. Not all of these can be inculcated in the training programme, even with the best of efforts. The selection of an appropriate candidate therefore becomes an issue of pivotal importance. The changing focus of urological training incorporates research and evidence-based practice as essential components. It is particularly important in the developing world, as there is a dearth of standardised practice models across the healthcare system. Encouraging female residents can be done by improving and tailoring the working conditions. The 'brain drain' is a major problem in the developing world, and bureaucracy and government need to take appropriate measures to provide high-quality healthcare facilities with room for professional growth. Conclusions The future of urology will depend on improved education and training, leading to high-quality urological care, and to developing a service that is patient focused. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Arab Association of Urology.


PubMed | Karachi Medical and Dental College and Aga Khan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Heart views : the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association | Year: 2016

A 28-year-old woman presented with 3-month history of fever of unknown origin and progressively increasing cough. She was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis on bronchial lavage cultures. A chest X-ray performed on follow-up showed a new opacity in the left apical area of the chest. Computed tomography scan of chest showed a large 10 cm pseudoaneurysm of the left subclavian artery 1 cm from its take off from the arch of the aorta. The pseudoaneurysm was approached through a left posterolateral thoracotomy and opened following a proximal and distal control. A 3 cm longitudinal defect was identified in the subclavian artery within its intrathoracic portion. This was debrided and repaired with an autologous pericardial patch. The patient had an uneventful recovery and remained well on follow-up.

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