Karachi Medical and Dental College

Karachi, Pakistan

Karachi Medical and Dental College

Karachi, Pakistan

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Zafar M.,Cambridge High School | Kalar M.U.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2012

Introduction: Sugars are most important cause of dental caries. Frequent consumption of carbohydrate containing snacks between meals is known to increase the amount of dental caries. Snacking several times and allowing snacks to stay on teeth cannot be neglected as an important cause of dental caries. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in children consuming snacks. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a private school. Subjects were selected on the basis of non-probability convenient sampling. Respondents were asked questions regarding their age and type of daily snack food consumption. Children who were medically fit were included and traumatized teeth were excluded. Diagnostic criteria depended on visual evidence of a lesion, with a blunt periodontal probe being used only to remove plaque. Caries were recorded using the decayed missed filled teeth (DMFT) index. Sample size calculation was done using the W.H.O. software where α=0.05, 1-beta=90, Po=0.67, P2=0.58, n (sample size)=245. Result: Descriptive statistics showed 45% were males. Mean age was 12 years. DMFT index showed one tooth decay in 39%, two teeth decay in 11% and three teeth decay in 4% of children respectively. There was no missing or filled teeth. More than half of students, 53% consumed cookies among them 35% consumed cookies once daily. Sweets were consumed by 56% of children. Chocolates as snacks were consumed by 60% of children. Ice cream was consumed by 86% of children. Potato chips were consumed by 76% of children. Citrus fruit juices were consumed by 67% of children. Jellies and jam were consumed by 39% of children. Marmalade was consumed by 14% of children. Halwa was consumed by 47% of children. Dental examination showed caries was present in 54% of children. Binary logistic regression analysis showed caries in children were 3.89 (95% CI, 2.16-7.01) times more in children consuming cookies as compared to children who do not consumed cookies. (p=0.0001) Caries in children were 4.28 (95% CI, 2.09-8.78) times more common in children consuming potato chips as compared to children who do not consumed potatoes chips. (p=0.0001) Conclusion: Our findings suggest that young children with poor dietary habits consuming snacks frequently were more likely to develop caries as compared to children with no snacking habits.


Ahmed A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Ahmed M.,University of Karachi | Parveen T.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight.


Siddiqui T.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine reliability and validity of objectively structured teaching examination (OSTE) and the difference in the examination scores of two consecutive Health Professions Education batches. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, Karachi, from November 2011 to April 2012. Methodology: The OSTEs were designed on the basis of examination blueprints. Scores of participants of two consecutive years (group-I n = 14, group-II n = 15) were analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Mean ± SD was computed and overall means were compared by t test. Reliability was determined by Cronbach's a coefficient. Standard error of measurement (SEM) was computed for precision of scores. OSTE stations were not uni-dimensional, factor analysis including varimax rotation was performed. For convergent validity (Pearson correlations) was determined between scores of OSTE, lectures delivered and workshops conducted. Results: The overall mean score was 7.64 ± 0.65 in group-I and 7.33 ± 1.03 in group-II (p = 0.429), (group-I SEM = 0.35 and group-II, SEM = 0.48). Factor analysis yielded four factors in group-I and five factors in group-II with Eigenvalues > 1. The Pearson's correlation of average scores of OSTE and lecture was significant for group-I (r = 0.61, p 0.019), and insignificant for group-II (r = 0.46, p = 0.08). Correlation between OSTE and workshops conducted was insignificant in group-I (r = 0.51, p = 0.057) and significant in group-II (r = 0.53, p = 0.04). Conclusion: OSTE is a reliable, valid assessment tool for discerning competency among learners of HPE program.


Musani M.A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Zafar A.,Ziauddin University | Suhail Z.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Malik S.,Bahria University | Mirza D.,Bahria University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours.


Arsalan A.,Baqai Medical University | Naqvi S.B.S.,University of Karachi | Ali S.A.,University of Karachi | Ahmed S.,Baqai Medical University | Shakeel O.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

(Graph Presented) Antibiotics not only support to alleviate the infections but also facilitate to avert the multiplication of microbes. Due to the irrational use of antibiotics, the resistance of antibiotics has been augmented which results may increase in morbidity and mortality with the span of time. World renowned regulatory bodies like Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) vigorously advocate the surveillance of the resistance of antibiotics. During the present study by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method 141 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n=47, 33.34%), Escherichia coli (n=54, 38.3%), Proteus species (n=26, 18.4%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=14, 9.92%) are evaluated against cefepime and cefpirome which comes of fourth generation cephalosporin. It has been found that cefpirome has better bactericidal activity than cefepime against E. coli and K. pneumoniae while cefepime has been possessed better antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Proteus species which were isolated from respiratory tract infections, blood stream infection, intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, Proteus species, and S. aureus were 34.8%, 26.3%, 11.3%, and 37.7% resistance against cefepime respectively. S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Proteus species has shown 41.4%, 21.7%, 17.6%, and 8.9% resistance against cefpirome correspondingly. © 2015, Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.


Tariq H.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Khan O.A.,Baqai Medical University | Aftab M.T.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2016

Various Risk factors initiate Submucous fibrosis which may be augmented by NSAIDs. A number of animal studies on their mechanism indirectly support it especially regarding alterations in prostaglandin synthesis. This study has been designed to find association of these drugs with Oral Submucous fibrosis in the presence of risk factors. Newly diagnosed patients of Oral Sub mucous fibrosis were recruited for this study who attended Dental Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College from July 1 till Dec 31,2013.A structured interview and medical record of each patient was used to determine the demographic profile, any addiction, previous and present illnesses and drug (s) used. Through examination of Oral cavity was carried out to access the severity of disease as per modified Khanna & Andrade Classification (1995). Statistical Analysis was done by SPSS 15. Total 102 patients were recruited from dental OPD as per criteria of inclusion. Among these patients 36 (49.31%) were using NSAIDs in which Acetaminophen (30.55%), Acetylsalicylic acid (25.00%) and Diclophenac (19.44%) were 1st, 2nd and 3rd most common drugs. Data shows that 14 patients (28.88%) had mild and 22(61.11%) had sever fibrosis which was significantly high (P<0.05). Mild fibrosis was seen in 05 (45.46%) and Sever fibrosis in 06 (54.54%) out of total 11 patients who were using NSAIDSs since less than or equal to 6 months. Similarly mild fibrosis was seen in 09 (36.00%) and Sever fibrosis in 16 (64.00%) out of total 25 patients who were on NSAIDs since more than 6 months. No statistical significant difference (P>0.05) in severity of fibrosis is seen in patients who were using NSAIDs since less than or equal to 6 months but statistical significant difference (P<0.05) in severity of fibrosis is seen in patients who on these drugs since more than 6 months. Addiction burden was calculated by Average Duration x Average Frequency, which was 92.72 for Pan, 88.88 for Supari and 61.30 for Miscellaneous. No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in addiction burden of various substances in these patients. An association of NSAIDs with Oral Sub mucous fibrosis exists. The pathology is augmented if these drugs are used in the presence of risk factors. Therefore these drugs should not be prescribed to these patients until a clear benefit is not targeted.


PubMed | Baqai Medical University, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Dow University of Health Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2016

Various Risk factors initiate Submucous fibrosis which may be augmented by NSAIDs. A number of animal studies on their mechanism indirectly support it especially regarding alterations in prostaglandin synthesis. This study has been designed to find association of these drugs with Oral Submucous fibrosis in the presence of risk factors. Newly diagnosed patients of Oral Sub mucous fibrosis were recruited for this study who attended Dental Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College from July 1 till Dec 31, 2013.A structured interview and medical record of each patient was used to determine the demographic profile, any addiction, previous and present illnesses and drug (s) used. Through examination of Oral cavity was carried out to access the severity of disease as per modified Khanna & Andrade Classification (1995). Statistical Analysis was done by SPSS 15. Total 102 patients were recruited from dental OPD as per criteria of inclusion. Among these patients 36 (49.31%) were using NSAIDs in which Acetaminophen (30.55%), Acetylsalicylic acid (25.00%) and Diclophenac (19.44%) were 1st, 2nd and 3rd most common drugs. Data shows that 14 patients (28.88%) had mild and 22(61.11%) had sever fibrosis which was significantly high (P<0.05). Mild fibrosis was seen in 05 (45.46%) and Sever fibrosis in 06 (54.54%) out of total 11 patients who were using NSAIDSs since less than or equal to 6 months. Similarly mild fibrosis was seen in 09 (36.00%) and Sever fibrosis in 16 (64.00%) out of total 25 patients who were on NSAIDs since more than 6 months. No statistical significant difference (P>0.05) in severity of fibrosis is seen in patients who were using NSAIDs since less than or equal to 6 months but statistical significant difference (P<0.05) in severity of fibrosis is seen in patients who on these drugs since more than 6 months. Addiction burden was calculated by Average Duration x Average Frequency, which was 92.72 for Pan, 88.88 for Supari and 61.30 for Miscellaneous. No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in addiction burden of various substances in these patients. An association of NSAIDs with Oral Sub mucous fibrosis exists. The pathology is augmented if these drugs are used in the presence of risk factors. Therefore these drugs should not be prescribed to these patients until a clear benefit is not targeted.


Saleem S.,Dow Medical College | Aslam H.M.,Dow Medical College | Anwar M.,Dow Medical College | Anwar S.,Dow Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2013

Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by abnormal calcified deposits in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Calcified deposits are made up of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, and are commonly located in the Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, Hippocampus, Cerebral cortex, Cerebellar Subcortical white matter and Dentate Nucleus. Molecular genetics of this disease haven't been studied extensively; hence evidence at the molecular and genetic level is limited. Fahr's disease commonly affects young to middle aged adults. Etiology of this syndrome does not identify a specific agent but associations with a number of conditions have been noted; most common of which are endocrine disorders, mitochondrial myopathies, dermatological abnormalities and infectious diseases. Clinical manifestations of this disease incorporate a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from neurological symptoms of extrapyramidal system to neuropsychiatric abnormalities of memory and concentration to movement disorders including Parkinsonism, chorea and tremors amongst others. Diagnostic criteria for this disease has been formulated after modifications from previous evidence and can be stated briefly, it consist of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia, progressive neurologic dysfunction, absence of biochemical abnormalities, absence of an infectious, traumatic or toxic cause and a significant family history. Imaging modalities for the diagnosis include CT, MRI, and plain radiography of skull. Other investigations include blood and urine testing for hematologic and biochemical indices. Disease is as yet incurable but management and treatment strategies mainly focus on symptomatic relief and eradication of causative factors; however certain evidence is present to suggest that early diagnosis and treatment can reverse the calcification process leading to complete recovery of mental functions. Families with a known history of Fahr's disease should be counseled prior to conception so that the birth of affected babies can be prevented. This review was written with the aim to remark on the current substantial evidence surrounding this disease. © 2013 saleem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ather M.H.,Aga Khan University | Siddiqui T.,Karachi Medical and Dental College
Arab Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Context Despite producing some of the leading urologists in the world, urological training in the developing world is marred by inconsistency, and a lack of structure and focus on evidence-based practice. In this review we address these issues from the trainers' perspective. Introduction Teaching the art and science of urological practice is a demanding task. It not only involves helping the resident to develop the depth of cognitive knowledge, but also to have an appropriate surgical judgement, and an ability to act quickly but thoughtfully and, when necessary, decisively. Discussion The surgeon must have compassion, communication skills, be perceptive and dedicated. Most importantly, however, he or she should have the ability to cut and suture. Not all of these can be inculcated in the training programme, even with the best of efforts. The selection of an appropriate candidate therefore becomes an issue of pivotal importance. The changing focus of urological training incorporates research and evidence-based practice as essential components. It is particularly important in the developing world, as there is a dearth of standardised practice models across the healthcare system. Encouraging female residents can be done by improving and tailoring the working conditions. The 'brain drain' is a major problem in the developing world, and bureaucracy and government need to take appropriate measures to provide high-quality healthcare facilities with room for professional growth. Conclusions The future of urology will depend on improved education and training, leading to high-quality urological care, and to developing a service that is patient focused. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Arab Association of Urology.


PubMed | Karachi Medical and Dental College and Aga Khan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Heart views : the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association | Year: 2016

A 28-year-old woman presented with 3-month history of fever of unknown origin and progressively increasing cough. She was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis on bronchial lavage cultures. A chest X-ray performed on follow-up showed a new opacity in the left apical area of the chest. Computed tomography scan of chest showed a large 10 cm pseudoaneurysm of the left subclavian artery 1 cm from its take off from the arch of the aorta. The pseudoaneurysm was approached through a left posterolateral thoracotomy and opened following a proximal and distal control. A 3 cm longitudinal defect was identified in the subclavian artery within its intrathoracic portion. This was debrided and repaired with an autologous pericardial patch. The patient had an uneventful recovery and remained well on follow-up.

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