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Ateeq I.S.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Muzammil Khan K.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Khalid J.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Ali M.,Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2013

Electrocardiogram measurement plays a fundamental role for the finding and monitoring of a variety of cardiac problems. In this investigational study we considered three lead computer interface ECG module with PIC Controller, based on the Einthoven's triangle technique. Our developed ECG module operates on bipolar limb lead arrangement and a particular gold plated switch is used for leads selection with the intention to reduce contact noises. LAB WINDOWS software is used to display a real time ECG signal that supports us to evaluate heart rate and PQRST amplitudes. Our investigational outcome illustrates 80% - 90 % precision as compared to conventional ECG machine, therefore it allowing an efficient ECG measurement regardless of artifacts. © 2013 IFMBE. Source

Hameed K.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Muzammil Khan M.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Shahrukh Ateeq I.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Khan A.,Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology | Ali M.,Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2013

Fire security system always provides high security against fire. Conventional fire security systems are wired and they usually contain smoke detectors and control panel. The control panel is sometimes hard to operate. Not everyone can understand the use of the control panel. In hospitals and other health care institutions very expensive equipments are normally installed. So each and every organization needs proper insurance and safety for their equipments and patients. Normally fire is detected using smoke detectors, but after detecting the fire the operator or the user should know the exact place of fire in the organization. We have introduced a system that will detect and show the exact place of wire (for example in floor or any room). It is basically two channel device that can detect fire or on rooms or floors. This system is very easy to operate and it also operates on RF signals. Everyone can easily operate its portable receiver. Wireless fire security system for hospitals is also very low cost device. It is the best way to insure the proper safety against fire. The major problem of third world countries is electricity or energy, this fire security system has the solution of this problem. This security system can be operated on both AC as well as on rechargeable DC batteries. The DC batteries can operate all the seven smoke detectors attached through each transmitter. The battery is also very cheap and easy to access in local places. All the components of this fire security system are easily available. It is the best fire security device at low cost. © 2013 IFMBE. Source

Zaman M.U.,Aga Khan University | Fatima N.,Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine | Sajjad Z.,Aga Khan University | Hashmi I.,General Electric | Khan K.,Aga Khan University
Annals of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the gold standard procedure for nodal staging in prostate cancer (PC) but less commonly used due to its invasiveness. More commonly computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used although these have limited sensitivities and specificities. The aim of this study was to find out the correlation between higher scrotal uptake ratio (SUR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) on bone scan and pelvic node metastasis in patients with PC at high risk for nodal metastasis. Methods This was a retrospective study which included 68 biopsy proven newly diagnosed PC patients who had bone scan from January 2008 till January 2012. MRI of the pelvis, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason's score were available in all patients. Whole body bone scan was performed in all patients and SUR was calculated by dividing mean counts over scrotum and soft tissue over lateral aspect of right thigh. PLND was carried out within 2-3 weeks of MRI study in these patients. Results Mean age of studied males was 71 ± 07 years with a mean PSA level of 65 ± 162 ng/ml. Prostate biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma in all patients with mean Gleason's score 7 ± 1. Mean SUR was 2.786 ± 0.496. MRI was positive for pelvic lymphadenopathy in 32/68 (47 %).PLND revealed evidence of nodal metastasis in 16/68 (24 %) patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed good diagnostic strength of SUR for nodal metastasis with a cut off value of >2.99 with an area under curve (AUC) 0.708 (95 %CI 0.533-0.847, p value<0.05) and a mean sensitivity of 68.75 % and mean specificity of 80 %. Diagnostic strength of MRI for nodal metastasis was found to be low (AUC 0.566, 95 %CI 0.047-0.657, non-significant p value). No significant correlation was found between SUR and PSA in nodes positive and nodes negative patients. Conclusion We conclude that in newly diagnosed PC patients, higher SUR on bone scan has a high diagnostic accuracy for pelvic node metastasis. Furthermore, a bone scan with a SUR <2.99 and negative for bone metastasis can stratify newly diagnosed PC patients as low risk. © The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine 2012. Source

Masroor I.,Aga Khan University | Azeemuddin M.,Aga Khan University | Sakhawat S.,Aga Khan University | Beg M.,Aga Khan University | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Management and Research | Year: 2012

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mammography reports for diagnosed breast cancer cases in major government and private centers in Karachi, Pakistan, with respect to concordance with the Breast Imaging Reports And Data System (BI-RADS®) lexicon. Methods: A prospective, descriptive, multicenter study was conducted in the radiology sections of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan Naval Station Shifa Hospital, Advanced Radiology Clinic, Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, and Civil Hospital Karachi between May and October 2010 after approval from the ethical review committee of Aga Khan University. Mammograms reported as BI-RADS category 4 and 5 were included in the study. Mammograms reported as BI-RADS category 0, 1, 2 and 3 were excluded. Fifty reports were collected from each center. Data were collected about the clinical indication, breast density, location and description of the lesion, calcification, and comments on axillary lymph nodes. This description was compared with the BI-RADS lexicon. Results: The mean age of the patients was 50 ± 12 years. The clinical indication, breast parenchymal density, lesion location, and presence of calcification were better described by the private centers, while description of lymph node status was better stated by the government centers. This difference was statistically significant, except for lesion description. The description of masses by the two reporting groups was comparable. Conclusion: Mammographic reporting of malignant breast lesions in the private sector is more in line with the BI-RADS lexicon, as compared with government sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Lymph node documentation was better in government sector reports. © 2012 Masroor et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Afsar N.A.,Alfaisal University | Afsar N.A.,Ziauddin University | Ufer M.,University of Kiel | Ufer M.,Novartis | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Purpose The cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide (CP) is bioactivated into 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide (4-OH-CP) through cytochrome P450 enzymes and cleared through aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase. This prospective study analyzes the influence of drug metabolizing enzyme genotype on (1) plasma 4-OH-CP:CP ratio and (2) myelotoxicity in breast cancer patients on 500 mg/m 2 cyclophosphamide. Methods Sixty-eight female breast cancer patients on FAC (fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide) were included. Genotyping of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH3A1), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTA1) was done either through RFLP or pyrosequencing. Plasma CP and 4-OH-CP were measured immediately and 1 and 2 h after the end of infusion through LCMS. The leukocyte count was determined on day 10 and 20 after chemotherapy. Results At CP dose of 500 mg/m2, the 4-OH-CP:CP ratio was negatively affected by CYP2C19*2 genotype (p=0.039) showing a gene-dose effect. Moreover ALDH3A1*2 genotype increased 4-OH-CP:CP ratio (p=0.037). These effects did not remain significant in a univariate analysis of variance including all genotypes. GSTA1*B carriers were at increased risk of severe leucopenia (OR 6.94; 95% CI 1.75-27.6, p=0.006). Conclusion The myelotoxicity in patients receiving FAC is related to the activity of the phase-II enzyme GSTA1 but is independent of the formation of 4-OH-CP. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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