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Objective: Radial route of access is increasingly being used for coronary angiograms and intervention. However, radiation exposure of operators was not known in our set up with either transfemoral or transradial procedures. The objective of the study was to compare related peripheral arterial route radiation exposure of operators by assessing fluoroscopy time. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship of operator experience with fluoroscopy time. Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center-Cardiovascular Institute of Karachi (Pakistan) during the period of July 1 st 2009 to September 30 th 2009. We studied 1016 consecutive adult patients referred for coronary angiography (CA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients who underwent right heart catheterization or for valvuloplasty were excluded from the study. Out of these 1016 patients, 928 were diagnostic CAs (734 via femoral route [f-CA] and 194 via radial route [r-CA]) and 88 were PCI (64 via femoral route [f-PCI] and 24 via radial route [r-PCI]). Fluoroscopy time was recorded as a surrogate of radiation exposure. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t, Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results: Mean fluoroscopy time was found to be significantly higher in patients who underwent r-CA (6.3±3.8 vs 4.0±2.9 min; p<0.001) and r-PCI (15.1±11.8 vs 10.3±7.4 min; p=0.02) as compared with those underwent f-CA and f-PCI. Mean fluoroscopy time of well experienced operators was also high in r-CAs (5.4±2.9 vs 4.2±3.5 min; p=0.004). Conclusion: Radial procedures are associated with longer fluoroscopy time that may result in high radiation exposure to radial operators. Even well experienced radial operators cannot minimize their fluoroscopy time to the level of well experienced femoral operators. © 2011 by AVES Yayi{dotless}nci{dotless}li{dotless}k Ltd. Source


Sultana R.,Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women > 30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Duration of hypertension (HTN) was > or = 2 years). Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +/- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +/- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +/- 30 gm/m2 in male while 103 +/- 22 gm/m2 in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. Source


Mawani M.,Aga Khan University | Kadir M.M.,Aga Khan University | Azam I.,Aga Khan University | McNally B.,Emory University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Overall survival after an OHCA has been reported to be poor and limited studies have been conducted in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the rates of survival from OHCA and explore components of the chain of survival in a developing country. Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study in the emergency departments (ED) of five major public and private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to April 2013. Twenty-four hour data collection was performed by trained data collectors, using a structured questionnaire. All patients ≥18 years of age, presenting with OHCA of cardiac origin, were included. Patients with do-not-resuscitate status or referred from other hospitals were excluded. Our primary outcome was survival of OHCA patients at the end of ED stay. Results: During the three month period, data was obtained from 310 OHCA patients. The overall survival to ED discharge was 1.6 % which decreased to 0 % at 2-months after discharge. More than half (58.3 %) of these OHCA patients were brought to the hospital in a non-EMS (emergency medical service) vehicle i.e. public or private transportation. Patients utilizing non-EMS transportation reached the hospital earlier with a median time of 23 min compared to patients utilizing any type of ambulances which had a delay of 7 min hospital reaching time (median time 30 min). However, patients utilizing ambulances with life-support facilities, as compared to all other types of pre-hospital transportation, had the shortest time to first life-support intervention (15 min). Most of the patients (92.9 %) had a witnessed cardiac arrest out of which only a small percentage (2.3 %) received bystander CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation). Median time from arrest to receiving first CPR was 20 min. Only 1 % of patients were found to have a shockable rhythm on first assessment. Conclusion: This study showed that the overall survival of OHCA is null in this population. Lack of bystander CPR and weaker emergency medical services (EMS) leading to a delay in receiving life-support interventions were some of the important observations. Poor survival emphasizes the need to standardize EMS systems, initiate public awareness programs and strengthen links in the chain of survival. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Sial J.A.,Chandka Medical College | Farman M.T.,Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases | Saghir T.,National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases NICVD | Zaman K.S.,National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases NICVD
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2011

Sixty years old male with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), presented with dyspnoea New York Heart Association (NHYA) class III to IV. Coronary angiogram revealed severe occlusive coronary artery disease in left anterior coronary artery (LAD). Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Left Anterior Descurery (LAD) were done in same sitting. Both procedures were successful and ended without complication. After, half an hour while shifting to coronary care unit (CCU) patient developed cardiac tamponade, which was managed successfully. Patient was followed up for three month, he is doing well and recent echocardiogram showed mild mitral stenosis with normal left ventricular function. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the combined appliance on interventional techniques in selected patients as an alternative to cardiac surgery. Source


Sultana R.,Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Early start of treatment including coronary revascularisation has been recognised as crucial variable in the outcome of acute ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of ST-segment resolution after thrombolytic therapy predicts short- and long-term outcomes in patients with an Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). The duration of quasi experimental study was 3 years, from July 2006 to June 2009, conducted at Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases. Total 1,023 patients of STEMI treated with streptokinase (SK) were enrolled in the study. Of the total 1023, 689 (67.3%) patients were males and 334 (32.6%) were females. Six hundred and twenty-nine (61.5%) were successfully resolved after thrombolytic therapy while in 395 (38.5%) patients ST-segment could not resolve into 3 conventional ST-segment resolution categories at 60 minute and 90 minute after thrombolysis. Three hundred and twelve (30%) and 444 (43.4%) with complete resolution, 344 (33.62%) and 325 (31.76%) with partial resolution, 367 (35.8%) and 491 (19.29%) were with no resolution at 60 and 90 minutes respectively. Shock, congestive heart failure, and recurrent angina and ischemia occurred more often in patients with partial or no ST resolution as compare to complete resolution. Source

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