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Clark J.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Johnson S.M.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Pediatric Surgery

Purpose: Postoperative abscesses after appendectomy occur in 3% to 20% of cases and are more common in cases of perforated appendicitis. Smaller abscesses are often amenable to antibiotic therapy, but surgical drainage remains the mainstay of treatment for larger collections. Surgical options generally include percutaneous drainage and open laparotomy. Laparoscopic drainage of these abscesses has not been well characterized in the pediatric population. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe our experience with laparoscopic drainage of postappendectomy abscesses that were not amenable to percutaneous drainage. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of all pediatric patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis at a tertiary pediatric medical center during a 4-year period (2006-2009). The review focuses on patients who developed abscesses after appendectomy, were unable to undergo percutaneous drainage, and were treated with laparoscopic abscess drainage. Results: Twelve patients (7 male and 5 female) underwent laparoscopic drainage of postappendectomy abscesses. The mean age was 8.5 years old (range, 3-14 years). A clinical diagnosis of postoperative abscess was made when fevers, pain, and leukocytosis persisted despite broad-spectrum antibiotics. Computed tomography was performed in all patients. Abscesses ranged between 3 and 11 cm in size. The mean length of time between initial appendectomy and drainage procedure was 10 days. There were no complications specifically related to the laparoscopic drainage procedure. The mean length of the drainage procedure was 77 minutes (range, 30-196 minutes). The mean hospital length of stay after laparoscopic drainage was 6.5 days (range, 3-13 days) with patients maintained on intravenous antibiotics until afebrile and without leukocytosis. Conclusion: Laparoscopic drainage is a safe and effective alternative for intraabdominal abscesses that occur after laparoscopic appendectomy. We recommend it as an alternative to open laparotomy when percutaneous drainage is not an option. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kuriyama D.K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | McElligott S.C.,Almeda County Medical Center | Thompson K.S.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

Gorham-Stout disease is a rare disease characterized by osteolysis, angiomatosis, and soft-tissue swelling. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and has an unknown etiology. Chylothorax is a common complication of the disease that is associated with a high mortality rate. There is no standard of treatment. We report a case of a 16-year-old female with Gorham-Stout disease and recurrent pleural effusions who was successfully treated with concurrent zoledronic acid and peg-interferon α-2b. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Delaney H.M.,U.S. Army | Wang E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Melish M.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Perinatology

Objective:To examine the use of long-term prophylactic mupirocin as part of a comprehensive strategy in reducing Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Study Design:Twice daily mupirocin was applied to all infants admitted to the NICU throughout hospitalization starting in 2004. S. aureus surveillance was implemented in 2008. The efficacy of these practices was evaluated with a retrospective review of infants admitted from 2004 to 2010 found to be colonized or infected with S. aureus.Result:During the study period, 66 of 6283 NICU infants had a S. aureus infection with 67% methicillin resistance. There were three distinctive S. aureus outbreaks, the first being a methicillin-resistant strain July 2004. After implementation of daily mupirocin, the outbreak was eradicated and the rate of S. aureus infection significantly decreased (1.82 to 0.40/1000 patient-days-At-risk, P=0.0049). Mupirocin was discontinued March 2005 followed by a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus outbreak November 2005. In December 2005, mupirocin was reinstituted and has continued to present day, again significantly reducing S. aureus infections (1.42 to 0.33/1000 patient-days-At-risk, P<0.0001) with zero isolates resistant to mupirocin. In the pre-mupirocin period, S. aureus colonization was upwards of 60% now with rates typically <5%. S. aureus colonization strongly predicted later invasive infection (P<0.0001).Conclusion:Although controversial, prophylactic mupirocin in all NICU infants has acted as a barrier to colonization and markedly decreased S. aureus infection rates over a 5-year period. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kosnik-Infinger L.,Medical University of South Carolina | Glazier S.S.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children | Frankel B.M.,Medical University of South Carolina
Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

Fixation at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is necessary in a variety of pediatric clinical scenarios. Traditionally an occipital bone to cervical fusion is preformed, which requires a large amount of hardware to be placed on the occiput of a child. If a patient has previously undergone a posterior fossa decompression or requires a decompression at the time of the fusion procedure, it can be difficult to anchor a plate to the occipital bone. The authors propose a technique that can be used when faced with this difficult challenge by using the occipital condyle as a point of fixation for the construct. Adult cadaveric and a limited number of case studies have been published using occipital condyle (C-0) fixation. This work was adapted for the pediatric population. Between 2009 and 2012, 4 children underwent occipital condyle to axial or subaxial spine fixation. One patient had previously undergone posterior fossa surgery for tumor resection, and 1 required decompression at the time of operation. Two patients underwent preoperative deformity reduction using traction. One child had a Chiari malformation Type I. Each procedure was performed using polyaxial screw-rod constructs with intraoperative neuronavigation supplemented by a custom navigational drill guide. Smooth-shanked 3.5-mm polyaxial screws, ranging in length from 26 to 32 mm, were placed into the occipital condyles. All patients successfully underwent occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation. In 3 patients the construct extended from C-0 to C-2, and in 1 from C-0 to T-2. Patients with preoperative halo stabilization were placed in a cervical collar postoperatively. There were no new postoperative neurological deficits or vascular injuries. Each patient underwent postoperative CT, demonstrating excellent screw placement and evidence of solid fusion. Occipital condyle fixation is an effective option in pediatric patients requiring occipitocervical fusion for treatment of deformity and/or instability at the CVJ. The use of intraoperative neuronavigation allows for safe placement of screws into C-0, especially when faced with a challenging patient in whom fixation to the occipital bone is not possible or is less than ideal. ©AANS, 2014. Source

King J.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children | Khan S.,Alfred i du Pont Hospital for Children | Khan S.,Thomas Jefferson University
Digestive Diseases and Sciences

To survey pediatric (PGI) and adult gastroenterologists (AGI) regarding their perceptions about the etiology, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and to assess whether differences in the clinical approach to EoE exist between these subspecialists. A 21-item survey related to EoE was emailed to PGI who subscribe to the PEDSGI Bulletin Board, and to two AGI per Electoral College vote in the US, randomly selected from each state. The survey was voluntary, and consent was assumed based on survey submission. The responses were submitted anonymously and results compiled in a secure Web site. A total of 249 physicians from across the globe responded to the survey, 68% of whom were PGI. The majority of respondents worked primarily in an academic institution or teaching hospital. Respondents revealed diagnosing an average of six cases (median 8, range 0-30) of EoE in the past 6 months. Ninety-two percent of AGI who see a patient with dysphagia and suspected EoE proceed to endoscopy with biopsies, compared to only 54% of PGI (P < 0.05); 38% of PGI would first perform an upper GI study. Both subspecialties agreed that biopsies of the proximal and distal esophagus are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of EoE. Fifty-eight percent PGI and 44% AGI defined EoE as an eosinophilic density of ≥20 per high power field (hpf) in esophageal biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of PGI but only 16% of AGI reported routine referral of patients for food allergy evaluation (P < 0.05). While 77% PGI and 91% of AGI would rely on a symptom-based follow-up, 27% PGI versus 9% AGI follow patients with biopsies according to a pre-determined schedule and another 38% repeat biopsies as needed, versus 15% AGI. This survey exposes a few inconsistencies among gastroenterologists in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with EoE. The currently available practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EoE are largely based on retrospective studies and expert opinion. The results of this survey suggest that a collaborative effort based on robust research is required upon us to develop evidence for how we care for these patients. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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