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Johnson S.M.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children | Grace N.,University of California at Davis | Edwards M.J.,U.S. Army | Woo R.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children | Puapong D.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: Congenital lung malformations (CLM) predispose patients to recurrent respiratory tract infections and pose a rare risk of malignant transformation. Although pulmonary lobectomy is the most common treatment of a CLM, some advocate segmental resection as a lung preservation strategy. Our study evaluated lung-preserving thoracoscopic segmentectomy as an alternative to lobectomy for CLM resection. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent thoracoscopic segmentectomy for CLM from 2007 to 2010. Results: Fifteen patients underwent thoracoscopic segmentectomy for CLM. There were five postoperative complications: three asymptomatic pneumothoraces and a small air leak that resolved without intervention. One patient developed a bronchopulmonary fistula requiring thoracoscopic repair. At follow-up, all patients are asymptomatic. One patient has a small amount of residual disease on postoperative computed tomography (CT), and re-resection has been recommended. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic segmentectomy for CLM is a safe and effective means of lung parenchymal preservation. The approach spares larger airway anatomy and has a complication rate that is comparable with that of thoracoscopic lobectomy. Residual disease can often only be appreciated on postoperative CT scan and may require long-term follow-up or reoperation in rare cases. This lung preservation technique is best suited to smaller lesions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Kuriyama D.K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | McElligott S.C.,Almeda County Medical Center | Thompson K.S.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2010

Gorham-Stout disease is a rare disease characterized by osteolysis, angiomatosis, and soft-tissue swelling. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and has an unknown etiology. Chylothorax is a common complication of the disease that is associated with a high mortality rate. There is no standard of treatment. We report a case of a 16-year-old female with Gorham-Stout disease and recurrent pleural effusions who was successfully treated with concurrent zoledronic acid and peg-interferon α-2b. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Bergert L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Bergert L.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children | Patel S.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Patel S.J.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children | And 4 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: We sought to achieve 100% compliance with all 3 Children's Asthma Care (CAC; CAC-1, CAC-2, CAC-3) measures and track attendance at follow-up appointments with the patient-centered medical home. The impact of these measures on readmission and emergency department utilization rates was evaluated. METHODS: This quality improvement study evaluated compliance with CAC measures in pediatric patients aged 2 to 18 years old hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of asthma from January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2012. A multidisciplinary Asthma Task Force was assembled to develop interventions. Attendance at the follow-up appointment was tracked monthly from January 1, 2009. Readmission and emergency department utilization rates were compared between the preimplementation period (January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007) and the postimplementation period (January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2012). RESULTS: The preimplementation period included 231 subjects and the postimplementation period included 532 subjects. Compliance with CAC-3 was 95% from October 1, 2009, through June 30, 2012. Compliance with the postdischarge follow-up appointment was 69% from January 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009, increasing significantly to 90% from October 1, 2009, through June 30, 2012 (P < .001). Postimplementation readmission rates significantly decreased in the 91- to 180-day postdischarge interval (odds ratio: 0.29; 95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: In children hospitalized with asthma, compliance with the asthma core measures and the postdischarge follow-up appointment with the primary care provider was associated with reduced readmission rates at 91 to 180 days after discharge. We attribute our results to a comprehensive set of interventions designed by our multidisciplinary Asthma Task Force. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


King J.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children | Khan S.,Alfred i du Pont Hospital for Children | Khan S.,Thomas Jefferson University
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2010

To survey pediatric (PGI) and adult gastroenterologists (AGI) regarding their perceptions about the etiology, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and to assess whether differences in the clinical approach to EoE exist between these subspecialists. A 21-item survey related to EoE was emailed to PGI who subscribe to the PEDSGI Bulletin Board, and to two AGI per Electoral College vote in the US, randomly selected from each state. The survey was voluntary, and consent was assumed based on survey submission. The responses were submitted anonymously and results compiled in a secure Web site. A total of 249 physicians from across the globe responded to the survey, 68% of whom were PGI. The majority of respondents worked primarily in an academic institution or teaching hospital. Respondents revealed diagnosing an average of six cases (median 8, range 0-30) of EoE in the past 6 months. Ninety-two percent of AGI who see a patient with dysphagia and suspected EoE proceed to endoscopy with biopsies, compared to only 54% of PGI (P < 0.05); 38% of PGI would first perform an upper GI study. Both subspecialties agreed that biopsies of the proximal and distal esophagus are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of EoE. Fifty-eight percent PGI and 44% AGI defined EoE as an eosinophilic density of ≥20 per high power field (hpf) in esophageal biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of PGI but only 16% of AGI reported routine referral of patients for food allergy evaluation (P < 0.05). While 77% PGI and 91% of AGI would rely on a symptom-based follow-up, 27% PGI versus 9% AGI follow patients with biopsies according to a pre-determined schedule and another 38% repeat biopsies as needed, versus 15% AGI. This survey exposes a few inconsistencies among gastroenterologists in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with EoE. The currently available practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EoE are largely based on retrospective studies and expert opinion. The results of this survey suggest that a collaborative effort based on robust research is required upon us to develop evidence for how we care for these patients. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Delaney H.M.,U.S. Army | Wang E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Melish M.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2013

Objective:To examine the use of long-term prophylactic mupirocin as part of a comprehensive strategy in reducing Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Study Design:Twice daily mupirocin was applied to all infants admitted to the NICU throughout hospitalization starting in 2004. S. aureus surveillance was implemented in 2008. The efficacy of these practices was evaluated with a retrospective review of infants admitted from 2004 to 2010 found to be colonized or infected with S. aureus.Result:During the study period, 66 of 6283 NICU infants had a S. aureus infection with 67% methicillin resistance. There were three distinctive S. aureus outbreaks, the first being a methicillin-resistant strain July 2004. After implementation of daily mupirocin, the outbreak was eradicated and the rate of S. aureus infection significantly decreased (1.82 to 0.40/1000 patient-days-At-risk, P=0.0049). Mupirocin was discontinued March 2005 followed by a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus outbreak November 2005. In December 2005, mupirocin was reinstituted and has continued to present day, again significantly reducing S. aureus infections (1.42 to 0.33/1000 patient-days-At-risk, P<0.0001) with zero isolates resistant to mupirocin. In the pre-mupirocin period, S. aureus colonization was upwards of 60% now with rates typically <5%. S. aureus colonization strongly predicted later invasive infection (P<0.0001).Conclusion:Although controversial, prophylactic mupirocin in all NICU infants has acted as a barrier to colonization and markedly decreased S. aureus infection rates over a 5-year period. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Clark J.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Johnson S.M.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: Postoperative abscesses after appendectomy occur in 3% to 20% of cases and are more common in cases of perforated appendicitis. Smaller abscesses are often amenable to antibiotic therapy, but surgical drainage remains the mainstay of treatment for larger collections. Surgical options generally include percutaneous drainage and open laparotomy. Laparoscopic drainage of these abscesses has not been well characterized in the pediatric population. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe our experience with laparoscopic drainage of postappendectomy abscesses that were not amenable to percutaneous drainage. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of all pediatric patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis at a tertiary pediatric medical center during a 4-year period (2006-2009). The review focuses on patients who developed abscesses after appendectomy, were unable to undergo percutaneous drainage, and were treated with laparoscopic abscess drainage. Results: Twelve patients (7 male and 5 female) underwent laparoscopic drainage of postappendectomy abscesses. The mean age was 8.5 years old (range, 3-14 years). A clinical diagnosis of postoperative abscess was made when fevers, pain, and leukocytosis persisted despite broad-spectrum antibiotics. Computed tomography was performed in all patients. Abscesses ranged between 3 and 11 cm in size. The mean length of time between initial appendectomy and drainage procedure was 10 days. There were no complications specifically related to the laparoscopic drainage procedure. The mean length of the drainage procedure was 77 minutes (range, 30-196 minutes). The mean hospital length of stay after laparoscopic drainage was 6.5 days (range, 3-13 days) with patients maintained on intravenous antibiotics until afebrile and without leukocytosis. Conclusion: Laparoscopic drainage is a safe and effective alternative for intraabdominal abscesses that occur after laparoscopic appendectomy. We recommend it as an alternative to open laparotomy when percutaneous drainage is not an option. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Nagasawa K.K.,Hawaii Surgical Residency Program | Johnson S.M.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2010

Objective: Lung abscesses in the pediatric population are relatively rare. We present our consecutive series of thoracoscopically treated pediatric lung abscesses. Methods: A retrospective review of children who underwent thoracoscopic drainage of intraparenchymal lung abscesses between October 2006 and January 2009 at a tertiary referral center. All patients had associated parapneumonic empyema and underwent drainage of the abscess concurrently with thoracoscopic treatment of the empyema. Results: Eleven children (4 boys and 7 girls) had thoracoscopic intervention for lung abscesses. A total of seventeen abscesses were drained. All procedures were completed thoracoscopically. There were no mortalities or long-term bronchopleural fistulas. No child required a formal thoracotomy, lung resection or a second operation. Mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 11.0 days (range, 3-36). Mean length of stay was 19.5 days (range, 6-77 days). Mean duration of postoperative chest tube was 3.6 days (range, 2-8). Mean length to defervescence was 4.8 days (range, 1-11 days). Mean duration of postoperative antibiotics was 23.6 days (range, 3-56). Eight children had organisms identified from intraoperative cultures. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic drainage of pediatric lung abscesses is a viable and safe treatment option. Thoracoscopic abscess drainage is associated with minimal morbidity and may result in faster recovery and a shorter course of antibiotics. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Killeen J.L.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children | Dye T.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children | Grace C.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children | Hiraoka M.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: The current system of Pap smear screening and management of abnormal cytology has resulted in a marked reduction in invasive cervical cancer. Many women, however, are not found to have significant precursor lesions. This is due to the poor specificity of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) triage. More specific cervical cancer biomarkers may be more effective triage tools than hr-HPV. We evaluated whether a dual stain for p16 and Ki-67 might improve the triage of abnormal Pap smears. MATERIALS AND METHODS: p16/Ki-67 immunostaining was performed on additional slides prepared from 515 women with abnormal Pap smears (301 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS], 169 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], 29 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade lesion [ASC-H], 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]). High-risk HPV typing was performed on all cases. Immunostaining and hr-HPV were compared in relation to their diagnostic accuracy for the detection of biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3. A cost analysis comparing hr-HPV versus immunostaining as the initial triage tool used for abnormal Pap smears was also performed. RESULTS: High-risk HPV was positive in 127 (42.2%) ASCUS, 129 (76.3%) LSIL, 20 (69.0%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. p16/Ki-67 was positive in 54 (17.9%) ASCUS, 73 (43.2%) LSIL, 19 (65.5%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. For detection of CIN 2/3, sensitivity/specificity of hr-HPV and p16/Ki-67 was 89.29%/14.94% and 96.43%/60.92%, respectively. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was statistically significantly higher for p16/Ki-67 compared with hr-HPV. Compared to HPV, immunostain triage could have generated approximately $46,000 savings in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: The triage of abnormal Pap smears by p16/Ki-67 immunostaining shows comparable sensitivity, improved specificity, and significantly improved diagnostic performance when compared to hr-HPV. Immunostaining is of value in triaging LSIL and ASC-H Pap smears in addition to ASCUS. The widespread utilization of biomarker triage could result in significant health care cost savings without compromising the detection of significant cervical cancer precursors. © 2013, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.


Halm B.M.,Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children
Hawaii medical journal | Year: 2011

Superior patient care and optimal physician training are often mutually elusive in the Emergency Department setting. Highfidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) are being used with increasing frequency in the training of medical students (MS) because they enable students to develop and refine medical competency in a non-threatening and safe environment. However, learner outcomes using HFPSs in this setting have not been well studied. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of HFPSs in simulation (SIM) training as a learning tool for preclinical second-year MS to further increase their toxicology knowledge. Second-year MS at a Problem Based Learning (PBL) medical school received a PBL toxicology teaching session in the middle of the semester. One week later, the students participated in a SIM exercise based on issues taken from the PBL case. The SIM exercise required that students address learning issues such as identifying abnormal findings, ordering tests, and, ultimately, initiating treatment on a full-scale HFPS mannequin. A supervised on-line test consisting of 10 multiple choice questions regarding the student's understanding of the learning issues was completed before the PBL class and directly before and after the SIM to determine the effectiveness of the HFPS use. Immediate video-assisted feedback was provided by emergency medicine attendings. Use of HFPSs during SIM exercises and in combination with PBL significantly increased toxicology knowledge in secondyear MS as determined by the improvement of on-line test scores (% correct answers) from 59% before PBL / before SIM to 69% after PBL / before SIM to 80% after PBL / after SIM. This study suggests that HFPS may be a valuable tool in helping to improve toxicology knowledge in second-year MS at a key transition period prior to beginning clerkship experiences. Incorporation of HFPS into PBL curricula may also be beneficial to MS in other areas of study where interactive learning could assist in evoking emotional realism while also enhancing critical thinking and acquisition of knowledge thereby facilitating the transition from theory to practice.


Clark J.J.,Hawaii Residency Program | Johnson S.M.,KapiOlani Medical Center for Women and Children
Pediatric Surgery International | Year: 2011

Purpose: To describe a unique single incision modification of the Nuss procedure and compare results to a historical cohort of standard Nuss patients. Methods: A retrospective review of 32 patients who underwent the Nuss procedure at a tertiary academic medical center over a 4-year period (2007-2010). Fourteen consecutive patients who underwent the modified technique (MN) were compared to the previous 18 patients who underwent the standard procedure (SN). We evaluated for differences between group demographics, operative variables, and postoperative course. The major technical modification was performing the entire procedure through a single right lateral thoracic incision. The dissection for bar placement on the left side of the chest was performed in a subcutaneous, pre-sternal and pre-muscular plane from the right-sided incision. The bar was placed from the right side and positioned in the standard fashion. Thoracoscopy was preformed via the same incision using a 45-degree thoracoscope and multiple trocar positions. The bar was anchored to the chest wall with a unilateral bar stabilizer. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the study groups in any of the patient, operative or postoperative care parameters. Conclusion: The single incision modified Nuss procedure is as safe and efficacious as the standard technique. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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