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Shih H.-C.,Meiho University | El-Shazly M.,Ain Shams University | Juan Y.-S.,Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao Kang Hospital | Juan Y.-S.,Kaohsiung Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

A marine furanoterpenoid derivative, 10-acetylirciformonin B (10AB), was found to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia, hepatoma, and colon cancer cell lines, with selective and significant potency against leukemia cells. It induced DNA damage and apoptosis in leukemia HL 60 cells. To fully understand the mechanism behind the 10AB apoptotic induction against HL 60 cells, we extended our previous findings and further explored the precise molecular targets of 10AB. We found that the use of 10AB increased apoptosis by 8.9%-87.6% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 15.2%-95.2% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of HL 60 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by 10AB, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of 10AB. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that 10AB could act as a topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of topoisomerase IIα. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, caspase inhibitors XIAP and survivin, as well as hexokinase II were inhibited by the use of 10AB. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased after 10AB treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that 10AB-induced apoptosis is mediated through the overproduction of ROS and the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.


PubMed | Pingtung Branch of Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi | Year: 2016

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) play an important role in pediatric diseases; however, there are limited data about LRTIs in Southern Taiwan. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and epidemiological data of LRTIs in this area.Children aged under 5 years who were hospitalized at a medical center in Southern Taiwan with acute LRTIs from July 2010 to October 2010 (summer) and from March 2011 to May 2011 (spring) were prospectively enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained and sent for viral cultures, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and traditional quick tests. The clinical features, laboratory data, and imaging findings were recorded and analyzed.A total of 90 children were enrolled, 70 of whom had detectable pathogens. The positive rate of conventional viral and bacterial cultures was 25.6%, which increased to 77.77% after combining with the two multiplex PCR methods. Adenovirus and enterovirus were the most common viral etiologies identified (26.5% of cases) and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading bacterial etiology (46.4%). The seasonal trend of viral infections in Southern Taiwan was different from Northern Taiwan. There were no differences in demographic data, severity of disease, or hospital stay between single and mixed infections. A similar result was found between nonpneumococcal and pneumococcal infections.Viral infections were the main etiologies of LRTIs in young children. Multiplex PCR methods are rapid assays that can increase the diagnostic yield rate. Mixed infections do not seem to affect the severity of disease. Early detection may aid clinicians in appropriate decision-making and treatment.


Chen W.-L.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Chen W.-L.,National Yang Ming University | Chen W.-L.,Pingtung Branch of Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Huang I.-F.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | And 19 more authors.
Pediatrics and Neonatology | Year: 2015

Background Patients with acute lobar nephronia (ALN) require a longer duration of antimicrobial treatment than those with acute pyelonephritis (APN), and ALN is associated with renal scarring. The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of ALN by comparing the clinical features of pediatric patients with ALN and APN. Methods We enrolled all of the patients with ALN (confirmed by computed tomography) admitted to our hospital from 1999 to 2012 in the ALN group. In addition, each patient diagnosed with APN who was matched for sex, age, and admission date to each ALN patient was enrolled in the APN group. The medical charts of patients in these two groups were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed for comparison. Results The fever duration after hospitalization in the ALN group and the APN group were 4.85 ± 2.33 days and 2.30 ± 1.47 days respectively. The microbiological distributions and the majority of susceptibilities were similar in the ALN and APN groups. The majority of clinical manifestations are nonspecific and unreliable for the differentiation of ALN and APN. The patients with ALN were febrile for longer after antimicrobial treatment, had more nausea/vomiting symptoms, higher neutrophil count, bandemia, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and lower platelet count (all p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, initial CRP levels, nausea/vomiting symptoms, and fever duration after admission were independent variables with statistical significance to predict ALN. Severe nephromegaly occurred significantly more in the ALN group than in the APN group (p = 0.022). Conclusion The majority of clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and microbiological features are similar between patients with ALN and APN. Clinicians should keep a high index of suspicion regarding ALN, particularly for those with ultrasonographic nephromegaly, initial higher CRP, nausea/vomiting, and fever for > 5 days after antimicrobial treatment. © 2014, Taiwan Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

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