Jalandhar, India
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Bhatia S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Verma N.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Bedi R.K.,Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2017

Nowadays, tremendous increase in environmental issue is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. This paper reports, rapid synthesis and characterization for tin doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by simple combustion method and doctor blade technique. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, optical, photocatalytic and gas sensing properties. These detailed characterization confirmed that all the synthesized nanoparticles are well crystalline and having good optoelectronic properties. Herein, different concentrations of Sn (0.5 at. wt%, 1.0 at. wt%, 2.0 at. wt%, 3.0 at. wt%) were used as dopants (SZ1–SZ4). The morphology of synthesized technique confirmed that the petal-shaped nanoparticles has high surface area and are well crystalline. In order to develop smart and functional nano-device, the prepared powder was coated on glass substrate by doctor blade technique and fabricated device was sensed for ethanol and acetone gas at different operating temperatures (300–500̊C). It is noteworthy that morphology of the nanoparticles of the sensitive layer is maintained after different concentration of Sn. High sensitivity is the main cause of high surface area and tin doping. PL intensity near 598 nm of SZ3 is greater than other Sn-doped ZnO which indicates more oxygen vacancies of SZ3 is responsible for enhanced gas sensitivity and photocatalytic activity. The sensing performance showed 5% volume of ethanol and acetone and gases could be detected with sensitivity of 86.80% and 84.40% respectively. The mechanism for the improvement in the sensing properties can be explained with the surface adsorption theory. Sn–ZnO was used as photocatalyst for degradation of DR-31 dye. Optimum concentration of prepared nanoparticles (2.0 at. wt%) exhibits complete degradation of dye only in 60 min under UV irradiation. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Verma N.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Bhatia S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Bedi R.K.,Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2017

Nowadays, tremendous increase in environmental issue is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. Influence of pH is the major concern for the application of ZnO nanoparticles. These nanoparticles with different tuning defects were prepared by simple combustion method using Zn nitrate as precursor and glucose as fuel and oxidizer. This paper reports the effect of four different pH values 5, 7, 9 and 11 to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles namely PZ1-PZ4. Prepared samples were characterized by several techniques including XRD, FESEM, FTIR, UV Vis, PL, LCR and Raman spectroscopy. These detailed characterization study confirmed that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles are possessing well crystalline and hexagonal wurtzite structure. Interestingly, it was observed that influence of pH greatly effects on morphological and electrical properties. The average grain size is in the range of 40–80nm. Raman spectroscopy exhibited a sharp and strong mode near 487 cm−1 which further confirmed the well crystalline and hexagonal wurtzite structure. Furthermore, ZnO as photocatalyst exhibited photocatalytic degradation towards direct red (DR-31) dye. From the photocatalytic experiment it was observed that degradation percentage increases with increasing pH value up to 9 and thereafter percentage degradation was decreased. Thus an ideal pH value of prepared nanoparticles is pH-9 exhibiting almost completes degradation only in 75 min under UV irradiation. Kinetic studied revealed that all the samples follows first order rate constant and for pH-9 rate constant is 0.04075 min−1. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Mann K.S.,Punjab Technical University | Mann K.S.,DAV College Kanpur | Heer M.S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2015

Gamma ray shielding behaviour of any material can be studied by various interaction parameters such as total mass attenuation coefficient (μm); half value layer (HVL); tenth value layer (TVL); effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (Nel), effective atomic weight (Aeff) and buildup factor. For gamma rays, the accurate measurements of μm (cm2 g-1) theoretically require perfect narrow beam irradiation geometry. However, the practical geometries used for the experimental investigations deviate from perfect-narrowness thereby the multiple scattered photons cause systematic errors in the measured values of μm. Present investigation is an attempt to find the optimum value of absorber thickness (low-Z) for which these errors are insignificant and acceptable. Both experimental and theoretical calculations have been performed to investigate the effect of absorber's thickness on μm of six low-Z (10


Mann K.S.,Punjab Technical University | Mann K.S.,DAV College Kanpur | Heer M.S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2015

Gamma-rays interaction parameters with six polymer and plastic materials have been computed and investigated for their shielding behaviours in the experimental energy range 10-1400keV. Low mass-density and ability to transform into thin-sheets of H-containing plastic and polymer materials generate the curiosity for present study. Gamma Ray Interaction Coefficients (GRIC)-toolkit: a computer program designed in MS-Excel, 2007 for the investigation. The toolkit has the capability to compute different parameters linked to shielding properties of the sample-material such that; mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ), mass energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ), equivalent atomic number (Zeq), KERMA (kinetic energy released per unit mass). Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) seems to be the best shield for gamma radiations in energy range 10-110keV. The interaction parameters for selected samples have been computed and provided in the extended energy range 0.015-15MeV. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sharma R.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Goyal V.,Punjabi University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

This paper describes the named Entity Recognition (NER) System for Hindi using CRF approach. In this paper, our experiments with various feature combinations for Hindi NER have been explained. The training set has been manually annotated with a Named Entity (NE) tagset of 12 tags. The performance of the system has shown improvements by using the part of speech (POS) information of the current and surrounding words, name list, location name list, organization list, person prefix gazetteers list etc. It has been observed that using prefix and suffix feature helped a lot in improving the results. We have achieved Precision, Recall and F-score of 72.78%, 65.82% and 70.45% respectively for the current NER Hindi system. We have used CRF++ toolkit for training and testing data. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Prasher S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Kumar M.,Lovely Professional University | Singh S.,Guru Nanak Dev University
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization | Year: 2014

Variations in dielectric, optical, and structural properties of Lexan and Kapton-H irradiated to 80 MeV O6+ ion beam were analyzed at different fluences ranging from 1011 to 1013 ions/cm2 with a scanned beam current of 1 pnA. The structural modifications were characterized with the help of FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. The electrical properties were investigated through capacitance and dielectric loss variations in ion-irradiated and pristine polymers at different frequencies. UV-vis absorption analysis indicates a decrease in the band gap energy in the two polymers. However, the decrease is much more prominent in Lexan (30%) than in Kapton-H (2.5%). The dielectric constant does not show appreciable variations after ion irradiation; however, a small increase has been noticed. An overall increase in the intensities of some typical bonds and stretching was observed in the FT-IR spectra of the pristine and ion-irradiated polymers. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Bhatia S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Verma N.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Bedi R.K.,Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology
Optical Materials | Year: 2016

Nowadays, growing world increasing demands of synthetic organic dyes which are widely used in food, leather and textile industries. This paper reports the simple rapid synthesis of Er doped ZnO nanoparticles by simple combustion method. Herein, different concentrations of Er (2.0 at. wt%, 2.5 at. wt %, 3.0 at. wt%, 3.5 at. wt%) were used as dopants. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized in term of structural, morphological, optical and kinetic properties. These detailed characterization study confirmed that the prepared nanoparticles are well crystalline. It was observed that different concentration of Er greatly influences morphology, band gap and photocatalytic activity on ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared Er doped samples were used as photocatalyst for photodegradation of direct red 31 (DR-31) dye. From the photocatalytic experiment it was observed that the degradation percentage increases with increasing Er concentration up to 2.5 at. wt% and thereafter photocatalytic degradation was decreased. Thus the optimum concentrations of prepared nanoparticles (2.5 at. wt%) are exhibiting almost complete degradation only in 60 min under UV irradiation. Kinetic studied revealed that all the samples follows first order rate constant. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Baccaro S.,ENEA | Catallo N.,University of L'Aquila | Cemmi A.,ENEA | Sharma G.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2011

The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique has been used to study the time decay of paramagnetic species induced by gamma irradiation and the radiation hardness of different alkali borate glasses for their application in safe nuclear waste disposal. Glasses with different composition have been prepared by conventional melt-quenching. Glass compositions have been chosen to elucidate the role of different alkali cations and of aluminium oxide on the borate glass network. The paramagnetic states detected in these glasses have been attributed, according to the literature, to the formation of hole centers associated with threefold coordinated boron. The results indicate that the time decay trend of the different glasses is slow and that the constant decay does not appear related to the chemical composition. Moreover, the undesired strong fading of the radiation-induced signal during the first 24 h after irradiation, observable in silicate glasses has not been detected. Although no species detectable by a X band spectrometer have been generated, the interaction of lithium borate glasses with air seem to accelerate the system decay rate. Annealing was finally performed and optimized, investigating the correlation between the chemical composition and the radiation damage recovery. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mehra R.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Singh M.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Turkish Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

Radioactivity of nuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 232Th and 40K was measured in soil by ? -ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector. A criterion was set in order to analyse soil samples from plain, semi-hilly and hilly areas in northern India. More than three γ -ray energy peaks were used for the determination of 226 Ra and 232Th activity concentrations to obtain more accurate results. Some of these peaks have interfering energies, which was caused by the limited resolution of the detector, but they were resolved theoretically and used in the analysis because of their significance in reducing the random error to its minimum level. Relationships between the measured radionuclides have been discussed elaborately. Radionuclides 238U and 226 Ra were found in disequilibrium with ratio of specific activities ( 238 U/ 226 Ra) less than unity for most of the samples. In some cases this disequilibrium may be significant enough to modify the γ -ray dose factors. © TÜBITAK.


Bhatia S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Bedi R.K.,Guru Nanak Dev University
ECS Transactions | Year: 2013

Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide films were prepared by Sol Gel dip coating method on Sapphire and Mica substrates. Zinc acetate solution of 0.2 and 0.4M in isopropanol stabilized by diethanolamine and doped with a concentrated solution of aluminum nitrate in ethanol were used. The content of aluminum in the sol was 2 at.%. The dipping of substrates were repeated up to 15 to 20 times to have thickness of films of range 0.5-0.8μm. XRD analysis of films grown on both Sapphire and Mica revealed that grains of undoped and doped films grew preferentially along the (002) plane but intensity of (002) was found to be more for mica than that of film grown on Sapphire. Average size of Crystallites using SEM measurements were found to be 50nm and 95 nm for the films grown on Sapphire and mica. The electrical resistivity were measured by a four-point probe method and it was revealed that electrical resistivity of the films grown on mica were lower than that on Sapphire but after annealing of the films for 1 hour (in vacuum) at 350°C the films on Sapphire substrate showed decrease in resistivity but no major changes in resistivity were observed on films grown on mica. Moreover optical band gap studies of films on both substrates were carried out. © The Electrochemical Society.

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