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Jalandhar, India

Mann K.S.,Punjab Technical University | Mann K.S.,DAV College Kanpur | Heer M.S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2016

Shielding is an integral part of any radiation facility, it is the method used for radiation protection. Safe storage of nuclear waste materials has become an important issue after Fukushima event. In Japan and France surface facilities are being considered for the storage of low-activity radioactive wastes. At these surface facilities, compacted clay liner obtained from clayey soil has been used as a cap barrier. The purpose of clay liner is to minimize the permeation of moisture, especially due to rainfall, through the barrier up to the radioactive material. Thereby it also reduces the emanation probability of undesirable radon gas and gamma-rays into the atmosphere. The brainchild behind the present investigation is to find the possibility of the burnt clay bricks to be used in these surface storage facilities. The present study aims to evaluate the gamma-ray shielding behaviour of burnt clay bricks in energy range 0.001-15. MeV. The samples of bricks were collected from four local brick-factories located near Bathinda-Ferozpur road, Punjab (India). An existing computer programme, Gamma Ray Interaction Coefficients (GRIC)-toolkit was modified for theoretical calculations of some interaction parameters for selected sample. Mineralogical study using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) followed by Rietveld refinement (XRD-R) has been found in good agreement with Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) investigation of samples for chemical compositions. XRD-R could be an interesting tool to recognize the radiation attenuation characteristics of materials. It has been concluded that local burnt clay bricks own the moderate gamma-ray shielding abilities while brick of clay (M-0) shows comparatively superior shielding behaviour. Thus brick of clay is the suitable candidate in the construction of environmentally-safe storage facilities for radioactive waste. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sharma R.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Goyal V.,Punjabi University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

This paper describes the named Entity Recognition (NER) System for Hindi using CRF approach. In this paper, our experiments with various feature combinations for Hindi NER have been explained. The training set has been manually annotated with a Named Entity (NE) tagset of 12 tags. The performance of the system has shown improvements by using the part of speech (POS) information of the current and surrounding words, name list, location name list, organization list, person prefix gazetteers list etc. It has been observed that using prefix and suffix feature helped a lot in improving the results. We have achieved Precision, Recall and F-score of 72.78%, 65.82% and 70.45% respectively for the current NER Hindi system. We have used CRF++ toolkit for training and testing data. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Mehra R.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Singh M.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Turkish Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

Radioactivity of nuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 232Th and 40K was measured in soil by ? -ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector. A criterion was set in order to analyse soil samples from plain, semi-hilly and hilly areas in northern India. More than three γ -ray energy peaks were used for the determination of 226 Ra and 232Th activity concentrations to obtain more accurate results. Some of these peaks have interfering energies, which was caused by the limited resolution of the detector, but they were resolved theoretically and used in the analysis because of their significance in reducing the random error to its minimum level. Relationships between the measured radionuclides have been discussed elaborately. Radionuclides 238U and 226 Ra were found in disequilibrium with ratio of specific activities ( 238 U/ 226 Ra) less than unity for most of the samples. In some cases this disequilibrium may be significant enough to modify the γ -ray dose factors. © TÜBITAK. Source


Mann K.S.,Punjab Technical University | Mann K.S.,DAV College Kanpur | Heer M.S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2015

Gamma ray shielding behaviour of any material can be studied by various interaction parameters such as total mass attenuation coefficient (μm); half value layer (HVL); tenth value layer (TVL); effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (Nel), effective atomic weight (Aeff) and buildup factor. For gamma rays, the accurate measurements of μm (cm2 g-1) theoretically require perfect narrow beam irradiation geometry. However, the practical geometries used for the experimental investigations deviate from perfect-narrowness thereby the multiple scattered photons cause systematic errors in the measured values of μm. Present investigation is an attempt to find the optimum value of absorber thickness (low-Z) for which these errors are insignificant and acceptable. Both experimental and theoretical calculations have been performed to investigate the effect of absorber's thickness on μm of six low-Z (10 Source


Prasher S.,Kanya Maha Vidyalaya | Kumar M.,Lovely Professional University | Singh S.,Guru Nanak Dev University
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization | Year: 2014

Variations in dielectric, optical, and structural properties of Lexan and Kapton-H irradiated to 80 MeV O6+ ion beam were analyzed at different fluences ranging from 1011 to 1013 ions/cm2 with a scanned beam current of 1 pnA. The structural modifications were characterized with the help of FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. The electrical properties were investigated through capacitance and dielectric loss variations in ion-irradiated and pristine polymers at different frequencies. UV-vis absorption analysis indicates a decrease in the band gap energy in the two polymers. However, the decrease is much more prominent in Lexan (30%) than in Kapton-H (2.5%). The dielectric constant does not show appreciable variations after ion irradiation; however, a small increase has been noticed. An overall increase in the intensities of some typical bonds and stretching was observed in the FT-IR spectra of the pristine and ion-irradiated polymers. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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