Cervencl A.,Institute of Avian Research Vogelwarte Helgoland |
Cervencl A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena |
Esser W.,Kapellenweg 2 |
Maier M.,University of Oldenburg |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2011
The effects of predation on Common Redshanks Tringa totanus incubation patterns and behaviour was investigated in 2006 and 2007 at three mainland study sites at the Jadebusen and at one study site on the island Wangerooge, Wadden Sea National Park Lower Saxony (Germany), using temperature data loggers. At these sites, breeding Redshanks were naturally exposed to different predation pressures (as revealed by different hatching success) that varied between 10 and 90% amongst study sites. In areas with a higher predation risk, incubating Redshanks showed a lower nest attendance than in areas where predation risk was low. On the mainland, two behavioural strategies could be distinguished. Some nests were unattended during the night for several hours whereas other nests were incubated for most of the night. Nocturnal absence behaviour was found only on the mainland, and then only in areas easily reached by ground predators. Since ground predators are often active during the night, and dangerous for the incubating birds, this behaviour has probably become established to avoid direct mortality of adult birds rather than avoidance of egg predation. This results from a trade-off between current and future reproduction. By leaving the nest unattended during the night, these birds probably put their own survival before reproduction to maximise their lifetime reproductive success. Since such long incubation recesses may have negative consequences for embryo development, the results of this investigation provide an example of an indirect effect of predation. However, the behavioural trait of nocturnal absence from the nest may directly reduce reproduction and thus fitness of these individuals. © 2011 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.
Boysen H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Kek S.,Kantstrasse 1
Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie | Year: 2015
The crystal structure of labradorite is characterized by two modulation waves with largely different periods of about 1500 Å and 50 Å, giving rise to s- and e-satellites, respectively. The problems to determine the true structure by diffraction methods are discussed. Since each s-lamella has its own e-modulation, common experiments are not sufficient. Using only s-satellites around main reflections assumes e-averaged structures of the s-lamellae. On the other hand, using only averaged e-satellites and main reflections integrated over the s-satellites leads to a hypothetical, idealised structure such as if there were no s-modulation. For this reason the analysis of an extensive data set, including e-satellites up to third order, cannot resolve the Ca/Na modulation unambiguously, although the Si/Al modulation can be determined consistently from directly refined occupancies and T-O bond lengths. © 2015 by De Gruyter 2015.