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Wangen, Switzerland

Challa T.D.,ETH Zurich | Straub L.G.,ETH Zurich | Balaz M.,ETH Zurich | Kiehlmann E.,ETH Zurich | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2015

There are many known adipokines differentially secreted from the different adipose depots; however, their paracrine and autocrine effects on de novo adipocyte formation are not fully understood. By developing a coculture method of preadipocytes with primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes or tissue explants, we could show that the total secretome inhibited preadipocyte differentiation. Using a proteomics approach with fractionated secretome samples, we were able to identify a spectrum of factors that either positively or negatively affected adipocyte formation. Among the secreted factors, Slc27a1, Vim, Cp, and Ecm1 promoted adipocyte differentiation, whereas Got2, Cpq, interleukin-1 receptor-like 1/ST2-IL-33, Sparc, and Lgals3bp decreased adipocyte differentiation. In human subcutaneous adipocytes of lean subjects, obese subjects, and obese subjects with type 2 diabetes, Vim and Slc27a1 expression was negatively correlated with adipocyte size and BMI and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity, while Sparc and Got2 showed the opposite trend. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slc27a1 was increased upon weight loss in morbidly obese patients, while Sparc expression was reduced. Taken together, our findings identify adipokines that regulate adipocyte differentiation through positive or negative paracrine and autocrine feedback loop mechanisms, which could potentially affect whole-body energy metabolism. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Reichlin T.,University of Basel | Irfan A.,University of Basel | Twerenbold R.,University of Basel | Reiter M.,University of Basel | And 12 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND-: Current guidelines for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), among other criteria, also require a rise and/or fall in cardiac troponin (cTn) levels. It is unknown whether absolute or relative changes in cTn have higher diagnostic accuracy and should therefore be preferred. METHODS AND RESULTS-: In a prospective, observational, multicenter study, we analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of absolute (Δ) and relative (Δ%) changes in cTn in 836 patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of AMI. Blood samples for the determination of high-sensitive cTn T and cTn I ultra were collected at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing AMI was significantly higher for 2-hour absolute (Δ) versus 2-hour relative (Δ%) cTn changes (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [95% confidence interval], high-sensitivity cTn T: 0.95 [0.92 to 0.98] versus 0.76 [0.70 to 0.83], P<0.001; cTn I ultra: 0.95 [0.91 to 0.99] versus 0.72 [0.66 to 0.79], P<0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve-derived cutoff value for 2-hour absolute (Δ) change was 0.007 μg/L for high-sensitivity cTn T and 0.020 μg/L for cTn I ultra (both cutoff levels are half of the 99th percentile of the respective cTn assay). Absolute changes were superior to relative changes in patients with both low and elevated baseline cTn levels. CONCLUSIONS-: Absolute changes of cTn levels have a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy for AMI than relative changes, and seem therefore to be the preferred criteria to distinguish AMI from other causes of cTn elevations. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Meiers P.,University of Saskatchewan | Cil T.,University of Toronto | Guller U.,University of Bern | Zuber M.,Kantonsspital Olten
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery | Year: 2013

Purpose: The objective of this review is to summarize the evidence demonstrating that the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is not only associated with significantly less morbidity compared to the axillary dissection, but may also result in better staging and improved patient outcomes. Methods: A search of MedLine and PubMed articles using the terms "sentinel lymph node biopsy", "breast cancer", "staging", "morbidity", "survival", and "outcomes" was conducted. Results: Breast cancer staging includes axillary evaluation as an integral component. Over the past two decades, sentinel lymph node biopsy has evolved as a technique that has an improved morbidity over traditional axillary dissection. The sentinel node(s) undergo a more intensive pathologic examination than traditional axillary contents. In the node-negative group of patients, this may have led to stage migration and potentially improved disease-free and overall survival. Conclusion: The SLN procedure is not only associated with significantly less morbidity compared to the axillary lymph node dissection, it may also result in more accurate staging, better axillary tumor control and improved survival. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Marcocci C.,University of Pisa | Kahaly G.J.,Gutenberg University Medical Center | Krassas G.E.,Panagia General Hospital | Bartalena L.,University of Insubria | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Oxygen free radicals and cytokines play a pathogenic role in Graves' orbitopathy. METHODS: We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of selenium (an antioxidant agent) or pentoxifylline (an antiinflammatory agent) in 159 patients with mild Graves' orbitopathy. The patients were given selenium (100 μg twice daily), pentoxifylline (600 mg twice daily), or placebo (twice daily) orally for 6 months and were then followed for 6 months after treatment was withdrawn. Primary outcomes at 6 months were evaluated by means of an overall ophthalmic assessment, conducted by an ophthalmologist who was unaware of the treatment assignments, and a Graves' orbitopathy-specific quality-of-life questionnaire, completed by the patient. Secondary outcomes were evaluated with the use of a Clinical Activity Score and a diplopia score. RESULTS: At the 6-month evaluation, treatment with selenium, but not with pentoxifylline, was associated with an improved quality of life (P<0.001) and less eye involvement (P = 0.01) and slowed the progression of Graves' orbitopathy (P = 0.01), as compared with placebo. The Clinical Activity Score decreased in all groups, but the change was significantly greater in the selenium-treated patients. Exploratory evaluations at 12 months confirmed the results seen at 6 months. Two patients assigned to placebo and one assigned to pentoxifylline required immunosuppressive therapy for deterioration in their condition. No adverse events were evident with selenium, whereas pentoxifylline was associated with frequent gastrointestinal problems. CONCLUSIONS: Selenium administration significantly improved quality of life, reduced ocular involvement, and slowed progression of the disease in patients with mild Graves' orbitopathy. (Funded by the University of Pisa and the Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research; EUGOGO Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR524.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Kipfer S.,Kantonsspital Olten
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2014

Predilection sites for infratentorial multiple sclerosis lesions are well known and frequently involve the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis leading to classical internuclear ophthalmoplegia. We report a very rare oculomotor disorder due to a demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) lesion in the medial part of the lower pontine tegmentum. A 36-year-old man presented with sudden onset of blurred vision. Clinically there was limited eye adduction and abduction to either side, which corresponds to bilateral horizontal gaze palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a demyelinating CNS lesion affecting the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, abducens nuclei or abducens fibres in the medial part of the lower pontine tegmentum. Furthermore there were six further demyelinating white matter lesions fulfilling all Barkhof criteria for multiple sclerosis. Demyelinating CNS lesions causing isolated bilateral horizontal gaze palsy are exceptional and usually associated with further focal neurological deficits, which was not the case in the presenting patient. This is a unique video report of isolated bilateral horizontal gaze palsy as the initial manifestation of demyelinating CNS disease, which lead to definite diagnosis of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

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