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Chur, Switzerland

Jeker R.,Kantonsspital Graubunden
Therapeutische Umschau | Year: 2013

Hypersplenism is characterized by a significant reduction in one or more of the cellular elements of the blood in the presence of normocellular or hypercellular bone marrow and splenomegaly. The incidence of hypersplenism in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension is high. In rare cases the hyperslenism is symptomatic with bleeding disorders or hemolytic anemia. In this situation the splenectomy is the therapy of choice. The arterial partial embolisation is a good alternative procedure in patients with high risk of operation. © 2013 Verlag Hans Huber, Hogrefe AG, Bern. Source

Cathomas R.,Kantonsspital Graubunden | De Santis M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | Galsky M.D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

More than 50% of patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma are not eligible for the standard treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In general, cisplatin-ineligible patients with metastatic urothelial cancer experience poor outcomes with standard treatment, although substantial heterogeneity exists. Baseline variables associated with poor prognosis include borderline performance status, presence of visceral metastases, liver metastases, and low hemoglobin. Although no standard treatment has been defined for cisplatin-ineligible patients, recommendations regarding carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy versus single-agent chemotherapy versus best supportive care are typically based on performance status and renal function. The clinical development of novel agents is of considerable interest. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Strebel R.T.,Kantonsspital Graubunden
Andrology | Year: 2013

Data supporting the widespread use of antibiotics in patients with chronic scrotal pain syndrome (CSPS) are not available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of bacteria in the genitourinary tract in patients presenting with CSPS. From July 2005 to July 2007 we prospectively enrolled patients presenting with CSPS in our outpatient clinic. The evaluation consisted of a detailed patient's history, physical examination and ultrasound examination of the scrotum. A blood and urinalysis, a Meares-Stamey four-glass test for bacterial cultures and PCR testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as well as a semen culture were performed. We assessed the symptom severity with the chronic epididymitis symptom index (CESI) score according to Nickel et al. (J Urol 2002, 167:1701; based on the NIH-CPSI). A total of 55 eligible men (median age 34 years) with CSPS were enrolled in the study. The median CESI score was 17 (range 4-26). The majority of patients (n = 39; 71%) were seen by a general practitioner or an urologist before. Of these, 25 patients (64%) were treated with antibiotics and 26 (67%) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. A significant bacterial colony count in at least one specimen was detected in 21 of 55 patients (38%). The predominantly detected microorganisms were an Alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus (11 patients) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (10 patients). Thus, only in 12 of 55 (22%) patients isolated bacteria were considered to be of clinical relevance. No factor or condition predictive for a bacterial aetiology for CSPS could be identified. In our microbiological assessment of patients presenting with CSPS we found no evidence for the widely held belief that CSPS is predominantly the result of a chronic bacterial infection. We therefore conclude that the widespread use of antibiotic agents in the treatment of patients with CSPS is not justified. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology. Source

Reinhart W.H.,Kantonsspital Graubunden
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation | Year: 2013

Platelets play a key role in primary hemostasis and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherothrombotic events such as stroke and myocardial infarction. When a plaque ruptures, platelets adhere to the underlying collagen matrix, become activated and aggregate, which may lead to vascular occlusions. Hemorheological aspects are intimately involved in this process. The assessment of this platelet function in vitro is difficult and has not reached the stage of routine use. Inhibition of platelet aggregation is the corner stone of any treatment of vascular disease. It is achieved mainly by to mechanisms, inhibition of thromboxane formation by acetylsalicylic acid, and with ADP receptor antagonists such as clopidogrel. Newer agents are being developed with the difficult mission to inhibit platelet aggregation more efficiently, and simultaneously reduce the risk of bleeding. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Maevis V.,University of Bonn | Mey U.,Kantonsspital Graubunden | Schmidt-Wolf G.,University of Bonn | Schmidt-Wolf I.G.H.,University of Bonn
Blood Cancer Journal | Year: 2014

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is part of the low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma family and represents approximately 2% of all leukemias. Treatment with splenectomy and interferon-α historically belonged to the first steps of therapeutic options, achieving partial responses/remissions (PR) in most cases with a median survival between 4 and 6 years in the 1980s. The introduction of the purine analogs (PA) pentostatin and cladribine made HCL a well-treatable disease: overall complete response rates (CRR) range from 76 to 98%, with a median disease-free survival (DFS) of 16 years a normal lifespan can be reached and HCL-related deaths are rare. However, insufficient response to PA with poorer prognosis and relapse rates of 30-40% after 5-10 years of follow-up may require alternative strategies. Minimal residual disease can be detected by additional examinations of bone marrow specimens after treatment with PA. The use of immunotherapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAB) like rituximab as a single agent or in combination with a PA or more recently clinical trials with recombinant immunotoxins (RIT) show promising results to restrict these problems. Recently, the identification of the possible disease-defining BRAF V600E mutation may allow the development of new therapeutic targets. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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