Kantonsspital Aarau AG

Aarau, Switzerland

Kantonsspital Aarau AG

Aarau, Switzerland
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Krapf D.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG | Kaipel M.,Barmherzige Bruder Hospital | Majewski M.,Universitaetsspital Basel Orthopaedie
Orthopedics | Year: 2012

Acute Achilles tendon ruptures are common sports injuries; however, treatment remains a clinical challenge. Studies show a superior effect of early mobilization and full weight bearing on tendon healing and clinical outcome; however, few data exist on structural and biomechanical characteristics in the early healing phase. This study investigated the histological and biomechanical characteristics of early mobilization and full weight bearing in an Achilles tendon rupture model. Eighty rats underwent dissection of a hindpaw Achilles tendon; 40 rats were treated conservatively and 40 underwent open repair of the transected Achilles tendon by suturing. Early mobilization and full weight bearing were allowed in both groups. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after tenotomy, tensile strength, stiffness, thickness, tissue characteristics (histological analysis), and length were determined. Dissected Achilles tendons healed in all animals during full weight-bearing early mobilization. One and 2 weeks after tenotomy, rats in the operative group showed increased tensile strength and stiffness compared with the nonoperative group. Repair-site diameters were increased at 1, 2, and 8 weeks after tenotomy. Tendon length was decreased in the operative group throughout observation, whereas the nonoperative group showed increased structural characteristics on the cellular level and a more homogeneous collagen distribution. Surgical treatment of dissected rat Achilles tendons showed superior biomechanical characteristics within the first 2 weeks. Conservative treatment resulted in superior histological findings but significant lengthening of the tendon in the early healing phase (weeks 1-8).

Schmoelz W.,Innsbruck Medical University | Disch A.C.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Huber J.F.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
European Spine Journal | Year: 2010

With the growing incidence of vertebral compression fractures in elderly patients having a fair overall health condition, minimal-invasive treatment techniques are getting in focus of surgical therapy. Cement augmentation is widely performed and its complications and mechanical limitations are well described. Implants avoiding the side effects of cement augmentation while reaching the same level of stability would be desirable. The primary and secondary stability of a new augmentation method with self-locking hexagonal metal implants were investigated and compared with the performance of established augmentation options. 18 fresh-frozen human spinal specimens (Th12-L2/L3-L5) were tested with pure moments of 7.5 Nm in a six-degree-of-freedom spine simulator to investigate primary and secondary stability of three augmentation techniques: (1) vertebroplasty, (2) PMMA filled cavity and (3) hexagonal metal implants. An increasing three-step cyclic loading model was included. Elastic displacement and height loss under loading did not show significant differences between the three test groups. Investigation of primary and secondary stability evenly demonstrated comparable results for all techniques indicating an insufficiency to stabilise the fracture with higher load cycles. The newly introduced method for augmentation with the metal implant Spine Pearls achieved comparable results to bone cement based techniques in a biomechanical in vitro study. Midterm and longterm reduction preservation and ingrowth of the implants have to be proven in further studies. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Schwappach D.L.B.,Swiss Patient Safety Foundation | Schwappach D.L.B.,University of Bern | Wernli M.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
Quality and Safety in Health Care | Year: 2010

Objectives To assess chemotherapy patients' perceptions of safety and their attitudes towards participating in error-prevention strategies. Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 chemotherapy patients at baseline. Follow-up interviews were conducted 9 weeks later. Setting A community hospital in Switzerland. Results Though patients had experienced errors in their care, they were only moderately worried about safety, risk of errors and the potential for harm. At follow-up, worries about safety had increased, and patients reported a higher degree of vigilance. Participants unequivocally agreed that patients can make contributions to their safety, and many patients were prepared to get involved. Patients described engaging in their safety as a learning process and highlighted the importance of being proactive, asking questions and communicating any observations of deviations from routines. Commonly recommended error-prevention strategies were rated as highly effective. Instruction by nurses was central for patients, but the underlying reasons varied. There was no indication that patients perceive participation in safety actions as eroding trust in their providers. Conclusions Patients are prepared to engage in their safety, but the encouragement by staff is vital. Involvement of patients with cancer in medication administration safety needs to acknowledge patients' conceptions of these activities and their varying abilities at different stages in the treatment process.

Von Kanel T.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG | Huber A.R.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
Swiss Medical Weekly | Year: 2013

DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group to cytosines and adenosines, regulates gene expression on a level that is usually referred to as epigenetic, that is, stably maintained during cell divisions. In humans, aberrant DNA methylation is associated with several malignancies, including cancer and so-called imprinting disorders, making it an attractive target for diagnostic purposes. Here we give a brief introduction to the biology of DNA methylation and present the use of methylation biomarkers in laboratory medicine. DNA methylation assays have become the standard procedure in the diagnosis of imprinting disorders, and they are about to shift cancer diagnostics and prognostics to the next level of molecular medicine. However, there is evidence of problems associated with the introduction of such cancer assays in routine diagnostics. We review several assays that have been proposed for DNA methylation analysis. The assays presented analyse the methylation status of single loci and are based either on a bisulphitetreatment or on methylation-sensitive restriction of the DNA under investigation.

Schwappach D.L.B.,Swiss Patient Safety Foundation | Schwappach D.L.B.,University of Bern | Wernli M.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
Oncologist | Year: 2010

Background. Patients can make contributions to the safety of chemotherapy administration but little is known about their motivations to participate in safetyenhancing strategies. The theory of planned behavior was applied to analyze attitudes, norms, behavioral control, and chemotherapy patients' intentions to participate in medical error prevention. Methods. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey study among chemotherapy patients treated at the oncology/ hematology department of a large regional hospital was conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to investigate the relationship between patients' responses to measures of attitudes, norms, and behavioral control and their intentions. Results. Four hundred seventy-nine patients completed the survey (52% response rate). Attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms explained 62% of the variance in intentions to engage in error monitoring and reporting. Perceived behavioral control (β =0.476), norms relating to patients' relatives (β = 0.343), and instrumental attitudes (β = 0.281) were the strongest (direct) predictors of patients' intentions. Experiential attitudes had the smallest effect on intentions (β = 0.178). Subjective norms relating to expectations attributed to oncology staff had strong direct and indirect effects on patients' intentions (total effect, 0.382). Conclusions. Patients acknowledge the benefit of error monitoring and reporting and anticipate positive outcomes of involvement, but their valuations of the process of engaging in error prevention are less positive. Behavioral control and perceptions of staff approval are central for patients. Involvement of cancer patients in safety requires oncologists to address their patients' normative and control beliefs through education and proactive approval of patient engagement. © AlphaMed Press.

Urbaniak P.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG | Hasler P.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG | Kretzschmar S.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2012

A patient with central nervous system involvement of Behçet's disease was refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapy and showed secondary failure of the anti-TNF agent infliximab. This presented as a progressive weakness of the legs and reduction in walking distance. The cerebrospinal fluid showed signs of inflammation including a vastly elevated IL-6 concentration. Given this result, the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab was administered and a good improvement of inflammatory parameters and a satisfactory increase of the walking distance were achieved. © Clinical and experimental rheumatology 2012.

Datta N.R.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG | Bodis S.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details of teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency-Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Schwappach D.L.B.,Swiss Patient Safety Foundation | Schwappach D.L.B.,Witten/Herdecke University | Wernli M.,Kantonsspital Aarau AG
European Journal of Cancer Care | Year: 2010

Medication errors in chemotherapy occur frequently and have a high potential to cause considerable harm. The objective of this article is to review the literature of medication errors in chemotherapy, their incidences and characteristics, and to report on the growing evidence on involvement of patients in error prevention. Among all medication errors and adverse drug events, administration errors are common. Current developments in oncology, namely, increased outpatient treatment at ambulatory infusion units and the diffusion of oral chemotherapy to the outpatient setting, are likely to increase hazards since the process of preparing and administering the drug is often delegated to patients or their caregivers. While professional activities to error incidence reduction are effective and important, it has been increasingly acknowledged that patients often observe errors in the administration of drugs and can thus be a valuable resource in error prevention. However, patients need appropriate information, motivation and encouragement to act as 'vigilant partners'. Examples of simple strategies to involve patients in their safety are presented. Evidence indicates that high self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness of the specific preventive actions increase likelihood of participation in error prevention. Clinicians play a crucial role in supporting and enabling the chemotherapy patient in approaching errors. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kantonsspital Aarau AG | Date: 2014-09-10

The present invention relates to methods and compositions for detecting inflammatory disorders and more particularly to methods and composition for detecting inflammatory disorders by detecting cell-free nucleosomes in a serum or plasma sample isolated from a subject.

Kantonsspital Aarau Ag | Date: 2010-01-29

The present invention relates to methods of detecting the presence of a genetic polymorphism within two or more closely linked, homologous genes, for example -thalassemia, in a sample using RT-PCR by subjecting the sample to separate amplification reactions using (a) a pair of forward and reverse primers specific for the head region of each of said two or more closely linked, homologous genes and (b) a pair of forward and reverse primers specific for the tail region of each of said two or more closely linked, homologous genes; and detecting and quantitating the amplification products relative to a control product.

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