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Grob K.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2014

The last 3 years brought much movement around the migration from recycled paperboard in general and of mineral oil in particular. It has been shown that it is unrealistic to ensure the safety of the many and variable migrants from recycled fibers. The toxicological evaluation of mineral oil remains uncertain, but the strong accumulation of certain saturated mineral hydrocarbons in human tissues might increase the concern. The draft of a German regulation on mineral oil migration from recycled paper and board struggles with the difficult analysis in food, but frequent measurement in food is avoidable if the compliance work can be based on citable systematic studies. In the discussions about potential solutions, the introduction of barriers prevails. Internal bags with barrier layers have been widely introduced. For packings without internal bags, barriers on the internal surface of the recycled paperboard have been developed, but not yet introduced into the market on broad scale. An agreed method for measuring barrier efficiency and a specification of minimum required efficiency are probably a prerequisite. Work for an industry standard on barriers is on-going in Switzerland. © 2014 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL). Source


Zurfluh M.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Biedermann M.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Grob K.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2014

A German draft for a regulation requires that there must be no migration of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from recycled paperboard into food. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) is requested to establish the detection limit. It was previously shown that the detection limit of the commonly used methods is below 0.1 mg/kg for the majority of the foods, but substantially higher in fatty products because of limited capacity of the liquid chromatographic preseparation to retain fat, interference by olefins and, if also the mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) should be analyzed, the natural paraffins primarily consisting of odd-numbered n-alkanes. A method is described for the enrichment of the MOSH and MOAH conceived as an auxiliary tool for fatty foods analyzed by the conventional methods, such as on-line HPLC-GC. In a double bed liquid chromatographic column, the lower packing consists of a mixture of activated aluminum oxide, silica gel with silver nitrate and activated silica gel, the upper of activated silica gel. The technical detection limit in edible oils is below 0.3 mg/kg, which translates to less than 0.1 mg/kg in the dry foods packed in recycled paperboard. The distinction between migrated mineral oil and that present before packaging often presupposes the availability of the food prior to packaging. © 2013 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL). Source


Biedermann-Brem S.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Biedermann M.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Grob K.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

The use of recycled paperboard and corrugated board for food packaging is in the interest of the sustainability of resources, but in most applications the food must be protected against contamination from these materials, such as by an internal bag with a functional barrier. Producers of packaging need a specification to find the most suitable and economical barrier for a given application, and the customer needs the confidence that a solution offered to him is adequate. An accurate determination of the barrier efficiency is not possible due to the large number of migrants, most of which have not been evaluated or not even identified. Hence the specification must be based on assumptions and verifiable by a simple test. The proposed benchmark presumes that the migration of all non-evaluated or even unknown substances in recycled paperboard will remain below 0.01 mg kg–1 food, the conventional detection limit, if their transfer does not exceed 1% of the content in the paperboard. Some substances, such as mineral oil or fatty acids, will exceed the 0.01 mg kg–1 limit, but they are known, evaluated and of no concern at the reduced migration. Since the critical substances must be assumed to be unknown, the criterion of the 1% migration is tested with three surrogate substances of similar volatility and covering a broad range of polarity. The cornerstones of the method are specified. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source


Eicher A.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Biedermann M.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Zurfluh M.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich | Grob K.,Kantonales Labor Zurich Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

Food contact is characterised in various terms, all of which are somewhat ill-defined. This work investigated the simplification that migration from food contact materials into dry food virtually exclusively proceeds through the gas phase, which would imply that the migration of essentially non-volatile components is negligible. It is shown here that this is not necessarily appropriate: for newspaper printed with an ink based on essentially non-volatile polyalphaolefins (PAO) as the main solvent, the migration into polenta and a baking mix reached 64% and 66% respectively of the content in the paper in merely 20 days at ambient temperature. Migration of involatile substances into dry foods implies diffusion through the paper to the small contact points. It depended on particle size, as this determines the density of the contacts. The diffusion rates within the food contact material and the food, including the transfer from one particle to the next, are other determining factors. This leaves the question whether such migration can be modelled or tested in a systematic manner (simulation), or whether it needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

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