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Watabe Y.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Noguchi T.,Kanto Regional Development Bureau
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2011

Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport) is a domestic hub-airport in Japan; however, the increasing number of passengers has brought it close to its capacity. In addition, there has been strong demand for the development of an international-flight network. Consequently, a new runway, called the "D-runway," was planned and constructed from March 2007 to October 2010. Because some of the D-runway runs through a river mouth, a hybrid structure consisting of piled pier and reclamation fill was adopted. To overcome the geotechnical difficulties in constructing this hybrid structure on the soft clay deposit, various technologies in design and construction were adopted. This paper provides an outline of the project, the ground investigation, and the design of the D-runway structure from a geotechnical engineering view point. From the results of the site investigation, the stratigraphic model at the site was clarified. For the clay layers, a representative depth-profile for each soil parameter was determined. Some local soil properties which tended to be overlooked when only employing an engineering point of view can be appropriately captured by linking the geological and geotechnical information. In the construction of the D-runway, not only the ground improvement technologies (SD, SCP, and CDM) but also the new developed construction materials (the pneumatic mixing of cement treated soil and air-foam treated lightweight soil) were utilized. In the-D-runway project, various technologies used in previous airport constructions were brought together and applied to the ground investigation, design, construction work, and even maintenance. The construction of the D-runway was completed safely, rapidly, and economically, and it came into use on 21 October 2010, on schedule. Source


Nishimura S.,Hokkaido University | Nishimura S.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Takehana K.,Geodesign Co. | Morikawa Y.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Takahashi H.,Kanto Regional Development Bureau
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2011

In-situ static compaction by grouting is routinely used as a countermeasure against liquefaction in loose sandy ground. The surrounding ground's stress changes induced by grout injection are considered to be an important cause for the stabilisation effects, along with some densification of the ground in the bulb's vicinity. The present study investigates characteristics of the stress changes by simulating compaction grouting processes in a geotechnical centrifuge. Detailed descriptions are given of apparatus and experimental techniques specifically developed for conducting miniature injection tests. The observed increases in the horizontal stresses, evaluated in terms of the earth pressure coeffcient, K, reflected the influence of grout pile spacing, and were found to be consistent with field measurements except near the surface. The centrifuge tests also allowed the changes in the dominant stress direction within the horizontal planes at the stabilised domain's centre to be evaluated, with the results indicating the dependency of the stress changes upon depth and interactions between neighboring grout piles. The significance of the stress changes in increasing the liquefaction resistance is demonstrated by mapping liquefaction curves against initial stress states through a series of cyclic hollow cylinder simple shear tests. Source


Nishimura S.,Hokkaido University | Nishimura S.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Takahashi H.,Kanto Regional Development Bureau | Morikawa Y.,Port and Airport Research Institute
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2012

The dynamic and non-dynamic interactions between a gravity-type quay wall and a backfill ground were investigated by centrifuge model testing, considering cases in which a rigidly cement-stabilised ground existed at varying distances from the quay wall. In conducting the centrifuge tests, the performance of the instrumentation applied to measure the pressure from granular soils was critically assessed. At non-dynamic states, the backfill confined between the quay wall and the rigidly stabilised soil block exerted smaller earth pressure at deeper locations, at both apparently active and transient states. The calculation, based on perfect plasticity and considering friction arching, was useful in explaining these results. A similar feature was also observed during the steady-state oscillations, in the case of dry sand backfill, and was associated with the system's increased seismic stability. In underwater cases, the pore water fluctuations in the backfill dominated the total earth pressure behaviour, with the active pressure being smaller again from a confined fill than from a fully extending one. Despite the reduced active pressure, placing the stabilised soil in the proximity of the quay wall increased the wall's permanent seaward movement, unless the two bodies were in direct contact. This ostensible association of smaller active pressure with greater instability in the underwater cases cannot be explained by the conventional, simplified conception of the active earth pressure as a unilateral cause of instability. The evaluation of such unconventional backfill conditions seems to require rigorous consideration of the simultaneous soil-water-structure interactions. © 2012. The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Watabe Y.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Noguchi T.,Kanto Regional Development Bureau | Mitarai Y.,Toa Corporation
Journal of ASTM International | Year: 2012

Recently, a new runway designated "D-runway" was constructed at Tokyo Haneda Airport. In this project, a large amount of cement treated lightweight soils made from very soft and mildly contaminated dredged clay was used. In this paper, a seawall structure using a cement treated lightweight soil made from dredged clay is introduced and the quality control of these soils in the construction work is discussed. Two types of lightweight soils, "pneumatic mixing cement treated soil" and "air-foam treated lightweight soil," were used as backfill in the seawall structures. Design and quality control of the lightweight soils were carried out, and the seawall structures were successfully constructed. The shear strength and bulk density of the lightweight soils placed in the sites met the required specifications in design. Copyright © 2012 by ASTM International. Source


Watabe Y.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Tanaka M.,Port and Airport Research Institute | Noguchi T.,Kanto Regional Development Bureau
Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterization 4 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Site Characterization 4, ISC-4 | Year: 2013

A new runway, named as "D-runway," in the Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport) was constructed from March 2007 to October 2010. This paper describes the ground investigation for this project. Undisturbed clay samples retrieved from the seabed were examined in the laboratory to evaluate their geotechnical properties. At the sandy layers, the standard penetration test was conducted to evaluate N-value. From the results of the site investigation, the stratigraphy at the site was clarified. Some local soil properties, which are tended to be overlooked from only an engineering point of view, can be appropriately captured by linking the geological and geotechnical information. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

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