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Kathmandu, Nepal

Basnet S.,Tribhuvan University | Shrestha P.S.,Tribhuvan University | Sharma A.,Tribhuvan University | Mathisen M.,University of Bergen | And 8 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diarrhea and pneumonia are the leading causes of illness and death in children <5 years of age. Zinc supplementation is effective for treatment of acute diarrhea and can prevent pneumonia. In this trial, we measured the efficacy of zinc when given to children hospitalized and treated with antibiotics for severe pneumonia. METHODS: We enrolled 610 children aged 2 to 35 months who presented with severe pneumonia defined by the World Health Organization as cough and/or difficult breathing combined with lower chest indrawing. All children received standard antibiotic treatment and were randomized to receive zinc (10 mg in 2- to 11-month-olds and 20 mg in older children) or placebo daily for up to 14 days. The primary outcome was time to cessation of severe pneumonia. RESULTS: Zinc recipients recovered marginally faster, but this difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% CI 0.94-1.30). Similarly, the risk of treatment failure was slightly but not significantly lower in those who received zinc (risk ratio = 0.88 95% CI 0.71-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Adjunct treatment with zinc reduced the time to cessation of severe pneumonia and the risk of treatment failure only marginally, if at all, in hospitalized children. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Griffiths M.J.,University of Liverpool | Lemon J.V.,University of Liverpool | Rayamajhi A.,University of Liverpool | Rayamajhi A.,National Academy of Medical science | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Over 133,000 children present to hospitals with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) annually in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases; in most cases no pathogen is identified and management is supportive. Although JE is known to result in neurological impairment, few studies have examined the wider impact of JE and AES on patients and their families.Methodology/Principal Findings:Children (aged 1 month-14 years) with AES were assessed 5-12 months after discharge from two Nepali hospitals. Assessment included clinical examination, the Liverpool Outcome Score (LOS) - a validated assessment of function following encephalitis, questionnaires about the child's social participation since discharge, and out-of-pocket costs to the family. Children were classified as JE or 'other AES' based on anti-JE virus antibody titres during acute illness. Contact was made with the families of 76% (73/96) of AES children. Six children had died and one declined participation. 48% (32/66) reported functional impairment at follow-up, most frequently affecting behaviour, language or limb use. Impairment was more frequent in JE compared to 'other AES' cases (68% [13/19] versus 40% [19/47]; p = 0.06). 49% (26/53) had improvement in LOS between discharge and follow-up. The median out-of-pocket cost to families, including medical bills, medication and lost earnings was US$ 1151 (10 times their median monthly income) for children with severe/moderate impairment and $524 (4.6 times their income) for those with mild/no impairment (P = 0.007). Acute admission accounted for 74% of costs. Social participation was limited in 21% of children (n = 14).Conclusions/Significance:Prolonged functional impairment was common following AES. Economic impact to families was substantial. Encouragingly, almost half the children improved after discharge and most reported sustained social participation. This study highlights a need for long-term medical support following AES. Rationalisation of initial expensive hospital treatments may be warranted, especially since only supportive treatment is available. © 2013 Griffiths et al.

Joshi B.G.,Civil Service Hospital | Keyal K.,Civil Service Hospital | Pandey R.,Civil Service Hospital | Shrestha B.M.,Kanti Childrens Hospital
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society | Year: 2011

Introduction: Enteric fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S.typhi) and Salmonella enterica serovara Paratyphi (S. paratyphi A, B and C). Most of the burden of the disease is limited to the developing world and the disease still has the issues like wide spectrum of clinical presentation and multidrug resistance. Objectives: This study was done to analyze the clinical profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in the cases of culture positive enteric fever. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Civil Service Hospital from February 2010 to January 2011 in the paediatric population in the age group of 2 to 14 years. Children with Salmonella species isolated in blood culture were included in the study. Results: Out of the 40 children with culture positive enteric fever, male to female ratio was 1.3: 1 with common age group between 11-14 years. S typhi was isolated in 25 cases while S. paratyphi in 15 cases. Clinical features of S. typhi and S. paratyphi were indistinguishable. Both S.typhi and S. paratyphi were found to be 100% sensitive to drugs like Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Cefixime and Chloramphenicol. Sensitivity to Ofloxacin was 100% in S. paratyphi and 92% in S.typhi. Similarly sensitivity of Azithromycin was 92% and 93% for S.typhi and S. paratyphi respectively. Conclusion: Salmonella serotype is still 100% sensitive to third generation cephalosporin. Some percentage of resistance is seen with Ofloxacin in S. typhi and with Azithromycin in both S.typhi and S. paratyphi.

Thapa B.,Kanti Childrens Hospital | Pun M.,Kanti Childrens Hospital
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society | Year: 2012

Introduction: Incarceration of an indirect inguinal hernia in children is an acute emergency and one of the common complications that may occur before herniotomy. Inguinal hernias rarely go away, and therefore, virtually all should be repaired at any age of presentation. Incarcerated inguinal hernia can be reduced successfully by manual reduction if performed by experienced hands on time. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of manual reduction of incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia. Materials and Methods: Thirty six patients who attended Emergency Department of Kanti Children's Hospital over 30 months period from January 2009 to July 2011 were studied prospectively. All patients were diagnosed case of inguinal hernia and waiting for elective herniotomy. Results: There were 30(83.33%) males and 6(16.66%) females, with male-to-female ratio of 5:1. Right sided inguinal hernia was 20(55.5%) and left 16(44.44%). The ages ranged from 1.5 months to 28 months with mean age of 15 months. Time of incarceration ranged from 3 hours to 30 hours. Manual reduction was successful in 30(83.33%). Remaining six had to undergo emergency surgery. Four patients with edematous but viable hernial contents had successful surgical reduction. Two patients with gangrenous small bowel loops had bowel resection and anastomosis. Conclusion: Manual reduction is safe and effective when performed timely. Herniotomy should be done without delay once diagnosed to avoid unnecessary complications.

Upreti S.R.,Ministry of Health and Population | Janusz K.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Schluter W.W.,World Health Organization | Bichha R.P.,Kanti Childrens Hospital | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Wider availability of the live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine has facilitated introduction or expansion of immunization programs in many countries. However, information on their impact is limited. In 2006, Nepal launched a JE immunization program, and by 2009, mass campaigns had been implemented in 23 districts. To describe the impact, we analyzed surveillance data from 2004 to 2009 on laboratory-confirmed JE and clinical acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases. The post-campaign JE incidence rate of 1.3 per 100,000 population was 72% lower than expected if no campaigns had occurred, and an estimated 891 JE cases were prevented. In addition, AES incidence was 58% lower, with an estimated 2,787 AES cases prevented, suggesting that three times as many disease cases may have been prevented than indicated by the laboratory-confirmed JE cases alone. These results provide useful information on preventable JE disease burden and the potential value of JE immunization programs. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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