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Corominas L.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Foley J.,GHD | Guest J.S.,Urbana University | Hospido A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique to quantify the impacts associated with a product, service or process from cradle-to-grave perspective. Within the field of wastewater treatment (WWT) LCA was first applied in the 1990s. In the pursuit of more environmentally sustainable WWT, it is clear that LCA is a valuable tool to elucidate the broader environmental impacts of design and operation decisions. With growing interest from utilities, practitioners, and researchers in the use of LCA in WWT systems, it is important to make a review of what has been achieved and describe the challenges for the forthcoming years. This work presents a comprehensive review of 45 papers dealing with WWT and LCA. The analysis of the papers showed that within the constraints of the ISO standards, there is variability in the definition of the functional unit and the system boundaries, the selection of the impact assessment methodology and the procedure followed for interpreting the results. The need for stricter adherence to ISO methodological standards to ensure quality and transparency is made clear and emerging challenges for LCA applications in WWT are discussed, including: a paradigm shift from pollutant removal to resource recovery, the adaptation of LCA methodologies to new target compounds, the development of regional factors, the improvement of the data quality and the reduction of uncertainty. Finally, the need for better integration and communication with decision-makers is highlighted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Desabrais K.J.,U.S. Army | Desabrais K.J.,Kansas Technology | Riley J.,U.S. Army | Riley J.,Kansas Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2012

A low-cost HALO cargo airdrop system using LCADS-LV parachutes has been successfully designed, constructed, and fullscale tested. Payload weights from 2500 to 10,000 lbs were airdropped from 17,500 ft AGL using a single to a cluster of four LCADS-LV parachutes and landed safely. Drop accuracy in operational field tests was better than 200 m (656 ft) CEP for both systems using reliable CARP data, and in addition, all the drops were within a 400 m (1312 ft) radius of the target. The main sources for the miss distance were system drifts during high-speed descent and during steady descent under the main recovery parachutes. Minimizing these two drifts will greatly enhance the drop accuracy of high-altitude ballistic airdrop systems. Further refinement of the CARP data will also enhance drop accuracy. Future work in improving system performance of these systems should be conducted in these areas. Copyright © 2011 by Luis Delgado.


Desabrais K.J.,U.S. Army | Desabrais K.J.,Kansas Technology | Johari H.,California State University, Northridge
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2013

A series of wind-tunnel experiments were conducted in which the drag characteristics and inflated geometry of model parachute canopies with rectangular parallelepiped geometries (polyhedron) were examined. The modelcanopy layouts were the same as cross canopies with the adjacent sides completely attached together. All models had a base dimension of 0.2 m, and aspect ratios ranged from 0.2 to 1.2. The models did not have a central vent or any other geometric porosity. The data show the inflated geometry of the canopy differs from the constructed geometry with the smallest change occurring at a constructed aspect of 0.8 and the variation becomes larger for increasing or decreasing constructed aspect ratios. The data also indicate the aerodynamic drag coefficient, based on the projected area, has a maximum value of approximately one for the constructed aspect ratio of 0.3 corresponding to an inflated aspect ratio of 0.53. The drag coefficient is less for smaller and larger aspect-ratio models. If scaled by the canopy surface area drag of the rectangular parallelepiped canopies is lower than flat circular canopy designs. These findings are consistent with the past findings on other flexible parachute canopies and rigid bluff bodies. Copyright © 2012 Clearance Center, Inc.


McQuilling M.,Saint Louis University | Potvin J.,Saint Louis University | Riley J.,Natick Soldier Research | Riley J.,Kansas Technology
28th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference | Year: 2010

This paper presents results from a Navier-Stokes finite volume flow solver simulating the flowfields around a platform and cargo configuration representative of platforms used for military parachute airdrops. The platform and cargo configuration consists of a flat plate model with an aspect ratio (width/length) of 0.56, upon which a box representing cargo is placed. This combination is simulated in conditions approximating the fall of a container prior to, and after parachute deployment and inflation, including a full 360° angle of attack range at a Reynolds number of 2.94.106 (freestream velocity of 30ft/s). The static simulations approximate those cases where the tumbling of the container (mostly prior to parachute deployment) is slow enough to approximate near-steady state flow conditions. Results include lift, drag, and moment coefficients over the range of flow conditions, as well as pressure contours to help elucidate relevant flow physics around the pallet-cargo configuration. Results show the flow orientation (into the nose bumper or flat side first) significantly affects the drag and moment behavior, but not the lift coefficient. Lift curve slopes match well to previously published data on pallet and cargo geometries as well as flat plates with similar aspect ratios. Drag and moment coefficients were significantly different between flow orientations; drag coefficients exhibit asymmetry between positive and negative angles of attack while moment coefficients illustrate that flow into the nose bumper may be more stable during extraction but much less stable during steady descent. © 2010 by Mark McQuilling.


McQuilling M.,Saint Louis University | McQuilling M.,Center for Fluids at All Scales | Potvin J.,Saint Louis University | Potvin J.,Center for Fluids at All Scales | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2011

This paper presents results from a Navier-Stokes finite volume flow solver simulating the flowfields around a platform and cargo configuration representative of platforms used for military parachute airdrops. The platform and cargo configuration consists of a flat-plate model with an aspect ratio (width/length) of 0.56 outfitted with a nose bumper, upon which a box representing cargo is placed. This combination is simulated in conditions approximating the fall of a container before and after parachute deployment and inflation, including a full 360° angle-of-attack range at Reynolds numbers of 2:94 × 106 and 9:80 × 106 (freestream velocities of 30 and 100 ft=s). The static simulations approximate those cases in which the tumbling and swinging of the container (mostly before parachute deployment or during descent) is slow enough to approximate near-steady-state flow conditions. Results include lift, drag, and moment coefficients over the range of flow conditions, as well as pressure contours to help elucidate relevant flow physics around the pallet-cargo configuration. Results show the flow orientation (into the nose bumper or flat side first) significantly affects the drag behavior, but not the lift or moment coefficients. Lift-curve slopes match well with previously published data on pallet and cargo geometries as well as flat plates with similar aspect ratios. Drag coefficients were significantly different between flow orientations and also exhibited asymmetry between positive and negative angles of attack. © 2011 by the authors. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.


Henry M.R.,Kansas Technology | Ormonde C.E.,Kansas Technology | Patel S.,Ignition Technologies
21st AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference and Seminar 2011 | Year: 2011

US Army Natick Solider Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) has been developing new ballistic parachute systems, including a family of High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) systems ranging from 50 to 2,200 pounds. The warfighter requires these new parachute systems to be dropped very accurately on to small drop zones from high altitudes. Since ballistic systems do not have the capability to correct their trajectory in flight, accurate models are needed to generate a computed aerial release point (CARP) that will result in an accurate airdrop. These models rely on several key variables that are derived from canopy performance. The variables used by the United States Air Force (USAF) for conventional airdrops and in airdrop mission planner software applications will be discussed in-depth as well as the methods used to generate the required data.


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Heaped Capacity (ISO Rated)33 Cubic Yards25.23 Cubic Meters Struck Capacity19 Cubic Yards14 ...


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