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Manhattan, KS, United States

Jacob M.E.,Kansas State University | Almes K.M.,Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | Shi X.,Kansas State University | Sargeant J.M.,University of Guelph | Nagaraja T.G.,Kansas State University
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes foodborne illness in humans; cattle are considered a primary reservoir for the organism, and transmission is often through contaminated food products or water. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of E. coli O157:H7 within a single individual bovine fecal sample based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Fecal samples (n=01) were collected from dairy and beef cattle at three separate facilities, and E. coli O157:H7 was isolated by enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective medium. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was 46 (7.7%) of 601. From each positive fecal sample, up to 10 putative colonies were tested, and isolates from samples with at least seven positive colonies were subtyped using PFGE and tested for six major virulence genes by multiplex PCR. A total of 254 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from 27 samples met these criteria and were included in PFGE analysis. Fifteen PFGE subtypes (lt;% Dice similarity) were detected among the 254 isolates, and there were no common subtypes between the three locations. Seven (26%) of 27 fecal samples had E. coli O157:H7 isolates with different PFGE subtypes (mean=.1) within the same sample. The virulence gene profiles of different isolates from the same sample were always identical, regardless of the number of PFGE types. The results of this study suggest that determining the PFGE pattern of a single isolate from a bovine sample may not be sufficient when comparing isolates from feces, hides, or carcasses, because multiple PFGE subtypes are present. © International Association for Food Protection. Source

Braucher D.R.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | Braucher D.R.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Henningson J.N.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | Henningson J.N.,Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

Influenza A virus (IAV) is widely circulating in the swine population and causes significant economic losses. To combat IAV infection, the swine industry utilizes adjuvanted whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines, using a prime-boost strategy. These vaccines can provide sterilizing immunity toward homologous virus but often have limited efficacy against a heterologous infection. There is a need for vaccine platforms that induce mucosal and cell-mediated immunity that is cross-reactive to heterologous viruses and can be produced in a short time frame. Nonreplicating adenovirus 5 vector (Ad5) vaccines are one option, as they can be produced rapidly and given intranasally to induce local immunity. Thus, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of a single intranasal dose of an Ad5-vectored hemagglutinin (Ad5-HA) vaccine to those of a traditional intramuscular administration of WIV vaccine. Ad5-HA vaccination induced a mucosal IgA response toward homologous IAV and primed an antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response against both challenge viruses. The Ad5-HA vaccine provided protective immunity to homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge, unlike the WIV vaccine. Nasal shedding was significantly reduced and virus was cleared from the lung by day 5 postinfection following heterologous challenge of Ad5-HA-vaccinated pigs. However, the WIV-vaccinated pigs displayed vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) following heterologous challenge, characterized by enhanced macroscopic lung lesions. This study demonstrates that a single intranasal vaccination with an Ad5-HA construct can provide complete protection from homologous challenge and partial protection from heterologous challenge, as opposed to VAERD, which can occur with adjuvanted WIV vaccines. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Johnson S.P.,National Marine Mammal Foundation | Fair P.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Carlin K.P.,National Marine Mammal Foundation | Jensen E.D.,U.S. Navy | And 4 more authors.
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2012

Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 μg/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 μg/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans. Copyright 2012 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

Khurana S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Loving C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Manischewitz J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | King L.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 3 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. We investigated a swinemodel to evaluatemismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. WIV-H1N2 immune sera contained high titers of cross-reactive anti-pH1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies that bound exclusively to the HA2 domain but not to the HA1 globular head. No hemagglutination inhibition titers against pH1N1 (challenge virus) were measured. Epitope mapping using phage display library identified the immunodominant epitope recognized by WIV-H1N2 immune sera as amino acids 32 to 77 of pH1N1-HA2 domain, close to the fusion peptide. These crossreactive anti-HA2 antibodies enhanced pH1N1 infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by promoting virus membrane fusion activity. The enhanced fusion activity correlated with lung pathology in pigs. This study suggests a role for fusion-enhancing anti-HA2 antibodies in VAERD, in the absence of receptor-blocking virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies. Copyright © 2013 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Source

Bayless R.,Kansas State University | Almes K.,Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | Choudhary S.,Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

A three-year-old female intact Quarter Horse with a history of bony enlargement of the mandible and both radii, third metacarpal bones, and third metatarsal bones was donated to a university teaching hospital for euthanasia. Mild weight loss of several months duration and a previous wound near the site of the mandibular swelling were also reported. There were no significant findings on physical examination except for the firm enlargement of the left mandible and distal limbs. She was non-reactive to palpation of the swellings and did not appear lame at the walk, although a complete lameness examination was not performed. Radiographs revealed bilaterally thickened cortices of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones and periosteal proliferation along the ventral portion of the left mandible immediately caudal to the mandibular symphysis. Thoracic radiographs were unremarkable. On post-mortem exam, the only gross abnormalities noted were diffuse fibrous adhesions between the pericardium and the epicardial surface of the heart and bilaterally symmetrical firm bony proliferation hemi-circumferentially around the distal radii, along the length of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and on the rostral left mandible. Histopathology of the heart revealed fibrous tissue deposition along the epicardial surface with small multifocal infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Microscopic examination of the affected mandible and third metatarsal bone were consistent with periosteal proliferation consisting of bony and fibrous tissues. Hypertrophic osteopathy is uncommonly diagnosed in horses and has been most commonly described secondary to intrathoracic lesions such as infectious or neoplastic processes. In this case, the development of periosteal proliferation may have been a consequence of a previous episode of pericarditis. © 2014, Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

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