Time filter

Source Type

Greater Noida, India

Sugiyama M.,Chiyoda Corporation | Akashi O.,Musashino University | Wada K.,Japan Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth | Kanudia A.,KanORS EMR | And 2 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Energy efficiency is one of the main options for mitigating climate change. An accurate representation of various mechanisms of energy efficiency is vital for the assessment of its realistic potential. Results of a questionnaire show that the EMF27 models collectively represent known channels of energy efficiency reasonably well, addressing issues of energy efficiency barriers and rebound effects. The majority of models, including general equilibrium models, have an explicit end-use representation for the transportation sector. All participating partial equilibrium models have some capability of reflecting the actual market behavior of consumers and firms. The EMF27 results show that energy intensity declines faster under climate policy than under a baseline scenario. With a climate policy roughly consistent with a global warming of two degrees, the median annual improvement rate of energy intensity for 2010-2030 reaches 2.3 % per year [with a full model range of 1.3-2.9 %/yr], much faster than the historical rate of 1.3 % per year. The improvement rate increases further if technology is constrained. The results suggest that the target of the United Nations' "Sustainable Energy for All" initiative is consistent with the 2-degree climate change target, as long as there are no technology constraints. The rate of energy intensity decline varies significantly across models, with larger variations at the regional and sectoral levels. Decomposition of the transportation sector down to a service level for a subset of models reveals that to achieve energy efficiency, a general equilibrium model tends to reduce service demands while partial equilibrium models favor technical substitution. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Labriet M.,Eneris Environment Energy Consultants | Joshi S.R.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Vielle M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Holden P.B.,Open University Milton Keynes | And 4 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2015

The energy sector is not only a major contributor to greenhouse gases, it is also vulnerable to climate change and will have to adapt to future climate conditions. The objective of this study is to analyze the impacts of changes in future temperatures on the heating and cooling services of buildings and the resulting energy and macro-economic effects at global and regional levels. For this purpose, the techno-economic TIAM-WORLD (TIMES Integrated Assessment Model) and the general equilibrium GEMINI-E3 (General Equilibrium Model of International-National Interactions between Economy, Energy and Environment) models are coupled with a climate model, PLASIM-ENTS (Planet-Simulator- Efficient Numerical Terrestrial Scheme). The key results are as follows. At the global level, the climate feedback induced by adaptation of the energy system to heating and cooling is found to be insignificant, partly because heating and cooling-induced changes compensate and partly because they represent a limited share of total final energy consumption. However, significant changes are observed at regional levels, more particularly in terms of additional power capacity required to satisfy additional cooling services, resulting in increases in electricity prices. In terms of macro-economic impacts, welfare gains and losses are associated more with changes in energy exports and imports than with changes in energy consumption for heating and cooling. The rebound effect appears to be non-negligible. To conclude, the coupling of models of different nature was successful and showed that the energy and economic impacts of climate change on heating and cooling remain small at the global level, but changes in energy needs will be visible at more local scale. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Gerboni R.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Grosso D.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Lavagno E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Kanudia A.,KanORS EMR | Tosato G.,ASATREM
Lecture Notes in Energy | Year: 2015

Energy modelling can provide a knowledge basis for tackling the security of energy supply issue at different geographical levels. This chapter presents an application of the coupling of the global TIMES Integrated Assessment Model and of the Pan European TIMES model through a series of trade links described and characterised in the REACCESS corridor model. The coupling was developed during the EU FP7 REACCESS project and was further improved and updated during a follow-up phase. The application focuses on the analysis of security of supply to Europe via energy corridors. A new methodology for the assessment of energy security, addressing the risk associated to each supply, is presented together with a scenario analysis related to some of the most populated of the EU’s Member States and to the European Union as a whole. The scenario analysis results show a sample of the possible assessments that stakeholders might be willing to rely on to address the effects of communitarian policies and targets: the preformed analysis, for example, unveils that a risk reduction at communitarian level may not univocally be translated into a benefit for individual Member States. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Seixas J.,New University of Lisbon | Simoes S.,New University of Lisbon | Dias L.,New University of Lisbon | Kanudia A.,KanORS EMR | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered alternatives to internal combustion engines due to their energy efficiency and contribution to CO2 mitigation. The adoption of EVs depends on consumer preferences, including cost, social status and driving habits, although it is agreed that current and expected costs play a major role. We use a partial equilibrium model that minimizes total energy system costs to assess whether EVs can be a cost-effective option for the consumers of each EU27 member state up to 2050, focusing on the impact of different vehicle investment costs and CO2 mitigation targets. We found that for an EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction cap of 40% and 70% by 2050 vis-à-vis 1990 emissions, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are cost-effective in the EU only by 2030 and only if their costs are 30% lower than currently expected. At the EU level, vehicle costs and the capability to deliver both short- and long-distance mobility are the main drivers of BEV deployment. Other drivers include each state's national mobility patterns and the cost-effectiveness of alternative mitigation options, both in the transport sector, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or biofuels, and in other sectors, such as renewable electricity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Wright E.,Economy Energy | Kanudia A.,KanORS EMR
Lecture Notes in Energy | Year: 2015

This chapter describes highly detailed modeling of existing coal-fired units in the US power sector within the FACETS TIMES model. Such detailed modeling is necessary wherever the existing stock plays a key role in determining policy cost. The soon-to-be-implemented Mercury and Air Toxics (MATS) regulation imposes unit-level emissions rate constraints on nearly 1100 coal-fired units, forcing retrofit or retire decisions at a large portion of the existing fleet. Covered emissions and retrofit costs depend in a detailed way on unit configuration and coal quality, forcing development of new techniques to handle the enormous expansion in model size and detail. These retrofit/retire decisions are being made under uncertainty about future carbon policies for the sector. FACETS was used to compare "foresight" scenarios in which the model could "see" both the MATS requirements and a power sector clean energy standard (CES) to "myopic" scenarios in which the MATS decisions made in the Reference scenario are fixed in the model solution up through the MATS compliance window in model year 2018, after which the model is free to begin responding to the CES. The overall national costs of myopia were found to be small, except when the carbon policy ramps up very quickly after air quality compliance decisions are made, but significant regional heterogeneity exists. Stranded asset costs from retrofitted units that must be underutilized or abandoned later range from $2 to 8 billion in the myopic cases. Substantially fewer retrofits are undertaken in the foresight cases, reducing stranded asset costs in some regions by up to 100 %. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Discover hidden collaborations