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Aliyu A.B.,Ahmadu Bello University | Yunusa I.,Kano University of Science and Technology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-. Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. Methods: A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. Results: The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. Conclusions: It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Shafiu S.,Kano University of Science and Technology | Shafiu S.,Fatih University | Topkaya R.,Gebze Institute of Technology | Baykal A.,Fatih University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2013

Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite was prepared by a PVA assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The magnetic core of the carriers was manganese ferrite (MnFe2O 4), with average crystallite size of 9.1 ± 2.1 nm. The PVA-MnFe2O4 nanocomposite exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and ferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures. Zero-field-cooled and field-cooled measurements further confirm the superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 160 K. The lower reduced remanent magnetization values than theoretical value of 0.5 indicate that the PVA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposite used in this study has uniaxial anisotropy rather than the expected cubic anisotropy according to the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. The calculated magnetic anisotropy constant of the sample is ∼1.45 × 106 erg/cm3 which is significantly higher than that of the bulk MnFe2O4 due to the strong magnetic coupling between magnetic core and surface spins. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pereira M.F.,Sheffield Hallam University | Faragai I.A.,Kano University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

In this paper we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with intervalence band transitions. The strong nonparabolicity and k-dependence of the transition dipole moment combined with many body effects leads to interesting features that strongly the polartonic branches as the excitation power increases. The numerical results presented can stimulate further experimental investigations for a deeper understanding of the intervalence band coupling scenario and have potential for polaritonic devices. © 2015 SPIE.

Kaurangini M.L.,Kano University of Science and Technology | Jha B.K.,Ahmadu Bello University
Journal of Porous Media | Year: 2010

In this paper, numerical and analytical solutions for the Couette steady and unsteady fully developed laminar fluid flow in the parallel plate partially filled with a uniform porous medium and partially with a clear fluid are presented in the presence of suction/injection. The Brinkman-extended Darcy equation is utilized to model the flow in a porous region. The solutions account for the boundary effects and for the stress jump boundary condition at the interface recently suggested by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1995a, b). The dependence of the velocity on the adjustable coefficient in the stress jump boundary condition and suction/injection is nvestigated. It is shown that accounting for a jump in the shear stress at the interface and suction are essentially influence velocity profiles. It is also observed that the unsteady velocity coincides with the steady-state velocity at large times. An excellent agreement was found between the results for large time values and well-known time values for steady-state problems. © 2010 by Begell House, Inc.

Mustapha A.,University Putra Malaysia | Mustapha A.,Kano University of Science and Technology | Aris A.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Ramli M.F.,University Putra Malaysia | Juahir H.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2012

The pollution status of the downstream section of the Jakara River was investigated. Dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), pH, conductivity, salinity, temperature, nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH 3), turbidity, dissolved solids (DS), total solids (TS), nitrates (NO3), chloride (Cl) and phosphates (PO4 3-) were evaluated, using both dry and wet season samples, as a measure of variation in surface water quality in the area. The results obtained from the analyses were correlated using Pearson's correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and paired sample t-tests. Positive correlations were observed for BOD5, NH3, COD, and SS, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, DS, TS for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter, and yielded 5 varimax factors for each of dry and wet seasons, with 70.7% and 83.1% total variance, respectively. A paired sample t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between dry and wet season samples (P < 0.01). The source of pollution in the area was concluded to be of anthropogenic origin in the dry season and natural origins in the wet season. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Jha B.K.,Ahmadu Bello University | Odengle J.O.,Ahmadu Bello University | Kaurangini M.L.,Kano University of Science and Technology
Journal of Porous Media | Year: 2011

This paper concentrates on the analytical investigation of steady-state convective Couette flow of fluid in a vertical parallel-plate channel partially filled with a porous medium and partially filled with clear fluid in the presence of suction/ injection. The Brinkman-extended Darcy model is used to simulate momentum transfer in the porous region. The fluid and porous regions are interlinked by equating the velocity and shear stress jump condition in the case of the momentum equation while matching of the temperature and heat flux have been taken for the thermal energy equation at the interface. Dependence of velocity field, temperature field, mass flow rate, and shear stress on several parameters of the problem is extensively discussed. © 2011 by Begell House, Inc.

Baba Nabegu A.,Kano University of Science and Technology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

This paper assesses the current management of municipal solid waste in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Data was collected through a desk study of the operations of the state agency responsible for waste management,-Refuse management and sanitation board (REMASAB); interview with key officials of the agency; participation in the day to day activities of the agency; direct measurement and segregation of the waste; laboratory analysis of some bacterial isolate in the waste and interview with residents of the city between 2006-2013. The results of the study indicates that 79.25% of the residents do not use official dump site, 68% consider the service as very poor, 55% believe frequency of collection is unsatisfactory and 92.4% believe coverage is very poor. Presence of some bacterial isolate in the waste such as escherichia coli 86.7%, staphylococus aureus 76.7%, shigella 43.3% samonella Sp 46.7%, klebsiela Sp 43.3%, protues Sp 33.3%, indicates presence of faecal matter and may be the source of the high prevalence of cholera, diarrhea and typhoid in Kano metropolis. The high organic content 61%, ash and dirt 20%, use of unsanitary landfill portends great potential for methane generation which is dangerous to the global environment. The paper recommends a decentralised system to local authorities where local businesses can be created to utilise the large pool of unemployed as well as to explore the opportunities of the waste management chain in recycling, composting, re-use and equipments manufacture. The paper highlighted some of the constraints that must be addressed to ensure the success of the proposal, which includes, lack of data collection on waste stream, lack training and need to create awareness among the public. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Mustapha A.,University Putra Malaysia | Mustapha A.,Kano University of Science and Technology | Aris A.Z.,University Putra Malaysia
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

This study presents the application of some selected multivariate statistical techniques, prediction method, and confirmatory analysis to identify spatial variation and pollution sources of the Jakara-Getsi river system in Kano, Nigeria. Two-hundred and forty water samples were collected from eight different sampling sites along the river system. Fifteen physico-chemical parameters were analyzed: pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, hardness, total dissolved solids, dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, iron, and nickel. Correlation analysis showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the river water samples were significantly positive correlated values. Principal component analysis and factor analysis (PCA/FA) investigated the origin of the water quality parameters as due to various anthropogenic activities: five principal components were obtained with 81.84% total variance. Standard, forward, and backward stepwise discriminant analysis (DA) effectively discriminate thirteen (92.5%), nine (90.1%), and six (88.5%) parameters, respectively. Multiple linear regression yielded multiple correlation coefficient R value of 0.98 and R-square value of 0.97 with significant value 0.0001 (p <0.05) showing that water qualities in Jakara-Getsi can be predicted due to high concentration of heavy metals. Structural equation modeling (SEM) confirmed the finding of multivariate and multiple linear regression analysis. This study provides a new technique of confirming exploratory data analysis using SEM in water resources management.

Musa A.,Kano University of Science and Technology | Sani B.,Kano University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2012

The existing literature on inventory of deteriorating items considers deterioration to begin as soon as the items are stocked. However, there are several deteriorating items that do not start deteriorating immediately they are held in stock. Some farm produce like potatoes, yams and even some fruits and vegetables have this property. Depletion of these items as soon as they are stocked will depend on demand, and when deterioration begins, it will depend on both demand and deterioration. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model on the inventory of deteriorating items that do not start deteriorating immediately they are stocked. The model also takes into cognizance the fact that in business activities nowadays customers are given some allowed period within which to settle for the goods supplied to them. They can use the accrued money from sales of the supplied goods to earn interest within the allowed period. They are charged interest only when they fail to settle the amount they owe the supplier at the end of the allowed period. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Aminu A.,Kano University of Science and Technology
Kybernetika | Year: 2011

Let a⊕b = max(a, b) and a⊕b = a + b for a, b ∈ ℝ. Max-algebra is an analogue of linear algebra developed on the pair of operations (⊕, ⊗) extended to matrices and vectors. The system of equations A ⊗ x = b and inequalities C ⊗ x ≤ d have each been studied in the literature. We consider a problem consisting of these two systems and present necessary and sufficient conditions for its solvability. We also develop a polynomial algorithm for solving max-linear program whose constraints are max-linear equations and inequalities.

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