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Nantou, Taiwan

Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ko H.-J.,National Chiayi University | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a popular medicinal fungus used for treating hypertension, hepatotoxicity and tumors. This study aimed to examine the hypolipidemic properties of A. cinnamomea extracts (ACE) in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Results showed that at concentrations 500, 1,000 and 1,500mg/kg, ACE showed no significant effect on total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, but a trend of decrease in plasma triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels was noted, and a significant reduction in LDL was observed at 1,500mg/kg ACE. ACE caused a significant decrease in liver triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations. ACE possessed the ability to enhance superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase production, and reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level in hyperlipidemic hamsters. These results conclude that ACE is able to lower the plasma triglycerides and LDL, liver triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations, as well as enhancing the level of antioxidant enzymes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wu S.-J.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Lu T.-M.,Tajen University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2013

Grifola frondosa (GF), a high value medicinal mushroom in China and Japan, is popularly consumed as traditional medicines and health foods, especially for enhancing immune functions. In this study, our aim was to examine the immunomodulatory activities of GF and its bioactive compound ergosterol peroxide (EPO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human monocytic (THP-1) cells. At low concentrations, EPO but not other extracts showed a full protection against LPS-induced cell toxicity. EPO significantly blocked MyD88 and VCAM-1 expression, and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) production in LPS-stimulated cells. It also effectively inhibited NF-κB activation, which was further confirmed with siRNA treatment. These results conclude that EPO may play an important role in the immunomodulatory activity of GF through inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Song A.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Ko H.-J.,National Chiayi University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2011

Wu-Ling-Shen, a lesser study medicinal fungus (Xylaria nigripes), is popular for treating insomnia and trauma in the traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, our aim was to examine the protective effects of X. nigripes extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice, and its content of polyphenolic constituents. The X. nigripes aqueous extract (XN-T) at 500 and 1000 mg/kg was given intragastrically to mice for 9 consecutive days, followed by receiving subcutaneously 2 mL/kg of 40% CCl4 in olive oil to induce hepatotoxicity. Blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Analysis of polyphenolic compounds was performed by RP-HPLC. Results showed that XN-T at 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly prevented the elevation of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (sGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (sGPT), and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, and caused an increase in the liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) concentrations, as well as serum total antioxidant activity in the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicated mice. It was as good as silymarin (100 mg/kg) in normalization of oxidative stress parameters. Furthermore, liver histological observation also showed an obvious amelioration in the liver conditions in XN-T-treated animals. XN-T was found to contain a higher level of epicatechin, catechin, and p-coumaric acid. These results conclude that XN exerts effective protection against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, and its mechanism of action could be through the effects of antioxidants on reducing the oxidative stress. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Shen K.-P.,Meiho University | Su C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lu T.-M.,Tajen University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2015

Context: Consumption of medicinal mushrooms for disease prevention and maintaining health has a very long history in Asia. Grifola frondosa (Fr) S.F. Gray (GF) (Meripilaceae) is a medicinal fungus popularly used for enhancing immune systems, lowering blood glucose, and improving spleen, stomach, and nerve functions. Objective: This study examines the hypoglycemic effects of GF in vitro and in vivo, and analyzes the chemical profiles of its bioactive components. Materials and methods: In vitro hypoglycemic effects of GF was evaluated enzymatically using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays, whereas in vivo study was conducted on high-fat diet fed and streptozotocin (HFD + STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice. GC-MS was used to determine the chemical profiles of bioactive components. Results: The non-polar fraction of GF exhibited a stronger anti-α-glucosidase activity (IC50: 0.0332 mg/ml) than acarbose, but its anti-α-amylase activity (IC50: 0.671 mg/ml) was weaker. Oral administration of GF at 600 mg/kg (GF600) significantly lowered the blood glucose, HbA1c, average blood glucose, and serum total cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic mice. Although GF was found to contain mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid, their levels in the fungus were low, suggesting that the effects of GF on HFD + STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice could be due to factors other than these fatty acids. Conclusion: These results conclude that GF possesses anti-α-glucosidase activity, and hypoglycemic effect in HFD + STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.


Su C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lu T.-M.,Tajen University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry | Year: 2013

This study examined the inhibitory effects of Grifola frondosa (GF), a medicinal mushroom popularly consumed in traditional medicine and health food, on digestive enzymes related to type 2 diabetes; chemical profiles and inhibitory kinetics of its bioactive fractions were also analyzed. Results showed that all GF extracts showed weak anti-α-amylase activity; however, strong anti-α-glucosidase activity was noted on GF n-hexane extract (GF-H). Further fractionation confirmed that compared with acarbose (a commercial α-glucosidase inhibitor), the nonpolar fraction of GF possessed a stronger anti-α-glucosidase activity but a weaker anti-α-amylase activity. These activities were not derived from ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide, two major compounds of this fraction. The inhibitory kinetics of GF-H on α-glucosidase was competitive inhibition. GF-H was as good as acarbose in inhibiting the starch digestion in vitro. Oleic acid and linoleic acid could be the major active constituents that have contributed to the potency of GF in inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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