Nantou, Taiwan
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Su C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

This study examined the effects of different extraction temperatures (70 °C, 100 °C and 121 °C) on the physicochemical properties of water soluble polysaccharides (WSP; GF70, GF100 and GF121, respectively) from Grifola frondosa (GF) fruiting bodies, and evaluating their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that GF121 had the highest yield. GF70, GF100 and GF121 contained a similar monosaccharide composition and the predominant monosaccharide was glucose. These polysaccharides contained two major macromolecular populations; the high molecular weight population showed a clear trend of reduced molecular weight with increasing extraction temperature. GF121 contained the highest amount of (1 → 3, 1 → 6)-β-D-glucans, while the degree of branching in all samples was similar. GF WSP possessed NO inhibitory activity, and the strongest was GF121. This study concludes that WSP are good sources of food ingredients, and high temperature extraction could improve the quantity and quality of GF WSP. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Corporation | Ko H.-J.,National Chiayi University | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a popular medicinal fungus used for treating hypertension, hepatotoxicity and tumors. This study aimed to examine the hypolipidemic properties of A. cinnamomea extracts (ACE) in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Results showed that at concentrations 500, 1,000 and 1,500mg/kg, ACE showed no significant effect on total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, but a trend of decrease in plasma triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels was noted, and a significant reduction in LDL was observed at 1,500mg/kg ACE. ACE caused a significant decrease in liver triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations. ACE possessed the ability to enhance superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase production, and reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level in hyperlipidemic hamsters. These results conclude that ACE is able to lower the plasma triglycerides and LDL, liver triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations, as well as enhancing the level of antioxidant enzymes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Song A.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Ko H.-J.,National Chiayi University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Corporation Ltd. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2011

Wu-Ling-Shen, a lesser study medicinal fungus (Xylaria nigripes), is popular for treating insomnia and trauma in the traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, our aim was to examine the protective effects of X. nigripes extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice, and its content of polyphenolic constituents. The X. nigripes aqueous extract (XN-T) at 500 and 1000 mg/kg was given intragastrically to mice for 9 consecutive days, followed by receiving subcutaneously 2 mL/kg of 40% CCl4 in olive oil to induce hepatotoxicity. Blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Analysis of polyphenolic compounds was performed by RP-HPLC. Results showed that XN-T at 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly prevented the elevation of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (sGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (sGPT), and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, and caused an increase in the liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) concentrations, as well as serum total antioxidant activity in the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicated mice. It was as good as silymarin (100 mg/kg) in normalization of oxidative stress parameters. Furthermore, liver histological observation also showed an obvious amelioration in the liver conditions in XN-T-treated animals. XN-T was found to contain a higher level of epicatechin, catechin, and p-coumaric acid. These results conclude that XN exerts effective protection against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, and its mechanism of action could be through the effects of antioxidants on reducing the oxidative stress. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Wu S.-J.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Lu T.-M.,Tajen University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2013

Grifola frondosa (GF), a high value medicinal mushroom in China and Japan, is popularly consumed as traditional medicines and health foods, especially for enhancing immune functions. In this study, our aim was to examine the immunomodulatory activities of GF and its bioactive compound ergosterol peroxide (EPO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human monocytic (THP-1) cells. At low concentrations, EPO but not other extracts showed a full protection against LPS-induced cell toxicity. EPO significantly blocked MyD88 and VCAM-1 expression, and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) production in LPS-stimulated cells. It also effectively inhibited NF-κB activation, which was further confirmed with siRNA treatment. These results conclude that EPO may play an important role in the immunomodulatory activity of GF through inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Su C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lu T.-M.,Tajen University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Company | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry | Year: 2013

This study examined the inhibitory effects of Grifola frondosa (GF), a medicinal mushroom popularly consumed in traditional medicine and health food, on digestive enzymes related to type 2 diabetes; chemical profiles and inhibitory kinetics of its bioactive fractions were also analyzed. Results showed that all GF extracts showed weak anti-α-amylase activity; however, strong anti-α-glucosidase activity was noted on GF n-hexane extract (GF-H). Further fractionation confirmed that compared with acarbose (a commercial α-glucosidase inhibitor), the nonpolar fraction of GF possessed a stronger anti-α-glucosidase activity but a weaker anti-α-amylase activity. These activities were not derived from ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide, two major compounds of this fraction. The inhibitory kinetics of GF-H on α-glucosidase was competitive inhibition. GF-H was as good as acarbose in inhibiting the starch digestion in vitro. Oleic acid and linoleic acid could be the major active constituents that have contributed to the potency of GF in inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Su C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai M.-N.,Kang Jian Biotech Co. | Lin C.-C.,Ten In Food Co. | Ng L.-T.,National Taiwan University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Mushroom polysaccharides have been known to possess various pharmacological activities. However, information on their chemical and biological differences between mushrooms remains limited. In this study, we aimed to examine the differences in physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharides prepared from Antrodia cinnamomea (AC-P), Coriolus versicolor (CV-P), Grifola frondosa (GF-P), Ganoderma lucidum (GL-P), and Phellinus linteus (PL-P), followed by evaluating their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that under similar conditions of preparation, the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides varied between different mushrooms, and glucose was the predominant monosaccharide, followed by galactose and mannose. AC-P and GF-P contained the highest amount of (1,3;1,6)-β-d-glucans. The degree of branching of (1,3;1,6)-β-d-glucans in all polysaccharides ranged from 0.21 to 0.26, with the exception of GF-P (0.38). The molecular weights of different polysaccharides showed diverse distributions; AC-P, CV-P, and GF-P contained two major macromolecular populations (< 30 and >200 kDa) and possessed triple-helix conformation, whereas GL-P (10.2 kDa) and PL-P (15.5 kDa) only had a low molecular weight population without triple-helix structure. These polysaccharides showed different inhibitory potency on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | National Taiwan University and Kang Jian Biotech Co.
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

This study examined the effects of different extraction temperatures (70C, 100C and 121C) on the physicochemical properties of water soluble polysaccharides (WSP; GF70, GF100 and GF121, respectively) from Grifola frondosa (GF) fruiting bodies, and evaluating their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that GF121 had the highest yield. GF70, GF100 and GF121 contained a similar monosaccharide composition and the predominant monosaccharide was glucose. These polysaccharides contained two major macromolecular populations; the high molecular weight population showed a clear trend of reduced molecular weight with increasing extraction temperature. GF121 contained the highest amount of (13, 16)--d-glucans, while the degree of branching in all samples was similar. GF WSP possessed NO inhibitory activity, and the strongest was GF121. This study concludes that WSP are good sources of food ingredients, and high temperature extraction could improve the quantity and quality of GF WSP.


PubMed | Ten In Food Co., National Taiwan University and Kang Jian Biotech Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Mushroom polysaccharides have been known to possess various pharmacological activities. However, information on their chemical and biological differences between mushrooms remains limited. In this study, we aimed to examine the differences in physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharides prepared from Antrodia cinnamomea (AC-P), Coriolus versicolor (CV-P), Grifola frondosa (GF-P), Ganoderma lucidum (GL-P), and Phellinus linteus (PL-P), followed by evaluating their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that under similar conditions of preparation, the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides varied between different mushrooms, and glucose was the predominant monosaccharide, followed by galactose and mannose. AC-P and GF-P contained the highest amount of (1,3;1,6)--D-glucans. The degree of branching of (1,3;1,6)--D-glucans in all polysaccharides ranged from 0.21 to 0.26, with the exception of GF-P (0.38). The molecular weights of different polysaccharides showed diverse distributions; AC-P, CV-P, and GF-P contained two major macromolecular populations (< 30 and >200kDa) and possessed triple-helix conformation, whereas GL-P (10.2kDa) and PL-P (15.5kDa) only had a low molecular weight population without triple-helix structure. These polysaccharides showed different inhibitory potency on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.


PubMed | Kang Jian Biotech Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of medicinal mushrooms | Year: 2013

Culinary-medicinal honey mushroom or Mi-Huan-Ku, Armillaria mellea (AM), is a popular ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine for treating diseases of geriatric patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of cultured substrates on the mycelial growth of AM and evaluate its antioxidant and antiedema activities as well as its total polysaccharide and polyphenol contents. Results showed that AM grew best on the maize medium and worst on the potato medium. AM ethanol extract (AM-EtOH) showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than AM aqueous extract (AM-HO). However, they were weak in metal chelation and reducing power. AM-EtOH but not AM-HO at 200 mg/kg showed antiedema activity in rats. The total -glucan content of AM-HO and AM-EtOH was 21.95% and 3.50%, respectively. AM-EtOH showed higher phenol but lower flavonoid content than AM-HO. These results indicate that maize is a good source of substrate for mass production of AM mycelia, and its potency of DPPH radical scavenging and antiedema activities was contributed mainly by the phenolic compounds, not the level of polysaccharide content.


Patent
KANG JIAN BIOTECH Corporation | Date: 2012-03-21

A kind of -glucosidase inhibitor, composing of mainly an unsaturated fatty acid composition, that acts to inhibit the decomposition of starch and disaccharides in the small intestine as well as slowing down the absorption of glucose, and thus achieving the objective of its application in preventing or treating diabetes and obesity.

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