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Leo S.-W.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Leo S.-W.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Young T.L.,Duke University | Young T.L.,National University of Singapore
Journal of AAPOS | Year: 2011

Myopia is the most common human eye disorder. With its increasing prevalence and earlier age-of-onset in recent birth cohorts, myopia now affects almost 33% of adults in the United States, and epidemic proportions of 85% to 90% adults in Asian cities. Unlike children in Western populations, where the prevalence of myopia is very low (less than 5%), Asian children have prevalences as high as 29% in 7-year-olds. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens of myopia, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. This workshop summarizes the current literature regarding myopia epidemiology, genetics, animal model studies, risk factors, and clinical treatments. Published treatment strategies to retard the progression of myopia in children, such as pharmacologic agents, progressive addition lenses, and neural adaptation programs, are outlined. Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.


Teo W.Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Rajadurai V.S.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital | Sriram B.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore | Year: 2010

Introduction: Parainfluenza type 3 virus (PIV-3) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants. We report an outbreak of PIV-3 respiratory infection which occurred in the neonatal unit of KK Hospital in June 2005. This is the second PIV-3 outbreak in our unit after the first in December 1994. Materials and Methods: The clinical characteristics and outcome of 7 infants tested positive for PIV-3 on nasopharyngeal aspirate in June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Seven cases were infected with PIV-3 during this outbreak. The median birthweight of affected infants was 970 g (range, 740 to 2585 g), gestational age was 27 weeks and 4 days (range, 24 to 35 weeks), and postnatal age was 84 days (range, 28 to 250 days). Apnoeas and bradycardias were significant symptoms in 3 infants, 5 infants had progressive respiratory distress while the remaining 2 infants had flu-like illness. Five infants required ventilatory support and there were no deaths. The index case was an infant with chronic lung disease who was on oxygen supplementation and subsequently required ventilatory support with nasal CPAP. Despite implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of infection through early identification with strict cohorting of infected cases, contact tracing/screening, and reinforcement of hand hygiene precautions, the outbreak lasted for 24 days. Conclusion: PIV-3 respiratory infection in preterm infants can present with non-specific symptoms, leading to significant morbidity especially in those with underlying pulmonary pathology. Early recognition of symptoms and diagnosis by physicians, and prompt institution of control measures are necessary to prevent the spread of infection.


Tsai Y.-J.,Chang Gung University | Lin P.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Chew K.-Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Chiang Y.-C.,Chang Gung University
Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery | Year: 2014

Purpose Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, low-grade malignant tumor. It is characterized by aggressive local infiltration, leading to a propensity for recurrence. In children, DFSP is even less common and likely misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. This study is a review of DFSP in the pediatric population and aims to identify factors for successful treatment. Materials and methods From July of 1986 to 2011, a total of 159 patients were diagnosed with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. Subject to the age classification of our institution, patients under the age of 18 are defined in the pediatric category, of which159 cases were identified as our research subjects. Detailed data, including demographic data, imaging studies, pathology, treatment methods, and outcomes, of these identified patients were collected, reviewed, and analyzed. Results A total of 13 patients, consisting of six male and seven female patients, were identified based on our criteria. Two had the lesions noticed at birth. Most patients experienced a variable period of quiescence, followed by a rapid growth phase. All 13 patients underwent wide excisions. Post-excision reconstruction included direct closure in three cases, skin grafting in three cases, and local or free flap reconstruction in seven cases. Of 13 patients, four received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients survived without recurrence up to July 2011, with follow-up periods ranging from 20 months to 19 years. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware that DFSP is known to occur among children. Owing to its relatively low incidence, its presence may be confused with commoner lesions such as hemangioma, fibroma, or atrophic plaques without nodule. The confusing situation, as a result, frequently leads to delayed diagnosis. Vigilance in its diagnosis allows for treatment at manageable sizes as well as ensures complete excision. Reconstructive options, such as skin grafting, and modalities, such as adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, are suggested to best complement each other. The former minimizes disfigurement while the latter minimizes recurrences. © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wu C.-C.,Chang Gung University | Lin P.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Chew K.-Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Kuo Y.-R.,Chang Gung University
Microsurgery | Year: 2014

Background: Free tissue transfer has become the preferred option for complex reconstructions in head and neck cancer ablation. This study reviewed the surgical outcome and analyzed the evolution of microsurgical head and neck reconstruction over 20 years in single institute. Patients and Methods: A total of 1,918 patients underwent microsurgical head and neck reconstructions in 20-year period. The surgical outcome and complications among these 2,019 flaps (1,223 anterolateral thigh flaps, 372 fibula flaps, 353 radial forearm flaps, 12 jejunal flaps, and 59 others) were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results: A total of 201 cases required emergent surgical re-exploration and the overall flap success rate was 96.2%. Venous insufficiency was the most common cause for re-exploration. Other major complications included fistula formation (5.4%), partial flap necrosis (7.5%), and infection (17.8%). The fibula flap had frequent complications compared with soft tissue flaps. The familiarity to the ALT flap had minimized complications and allowed for widely versatile uses. Conclusion: Free tissue transfer is shown to be highly reliable option for head and neck reconstruction. For soft tissue defect, ALT flap is the first choice. Fibula flap is ideal for bone defect reconstruction. In case of complex composite defects, double flaps, which include ALT and fibula flaps could reconstruct bone and soft tissue defects simultaneously with high success rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:339-344, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kuo P.-J.,Chang Gung University | Chew K.-Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Kuo Y.-R.,Chang Gung University | Lin P.-Y.,Chang Gung University
Microsurgery | Year: 2014

Background: Pressure sore reconstruction remains a significant challenge for plastic surgeons due to its high postoperative complication and recurrence rates. Free-style perforator flap, fasciocutaeous flap, and musculocutaneous flap are the most common options in pressure sore reconstructions. Our study compared the postoperative complications among these three flaps at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Methods: From 2003 to 2012, 99 patients (54 men and 45 women) with grade III or IV pressure sores received regional flap reconstruction, consisting of three cohorts: group A, 35 free-style perforator-based flaps; group B, 37 gluteal rotation fasciocutaneous flaps; and group C, 27 musculocutaneous or muscle combined with fasciocutaneous flap. Wound complications such as wound infection, dehiscence, seroma formation of the donor site, partial or complete flap loss, and recurrence were reviewed. Results: The mean followup period for group A was 24.2 months, 20.8 months in group B, and 19.0 months for group C. The overall complication rate was 22.9%, 32.4%, and 22.2% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The flap necrosis rate was 11.4%, 13.5%, and 0% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There was no statistical significance regarding complication rate and flap necrosis rate among different groups. Conclusions: In our study, the differences of complication rates and flap necrosis rate between these groups were not statistically significant. Further investigations should be conducted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Lin P.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Miguel R.,Chang Gung University | Chew K.-Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Kuo Y.-R.,Chang Gung University | Yang J.C.-S.,Chang Gung University
Microsurgery | Year: 2014

In this study, we introduced scalp reconstruction using free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and evaluated postoperative outcomes in nine patients between March 2000 and April 2012. Five patients had problems of exposed prosthesis, three required reconstruction after resection of scalp tumor and one patient presented with third degree flame burns of the scalp. All flaps survived without re-exploration, except three flaps with tip necrosis requiring secondary procedures of debridement and small Z-plasty reconstructions. The superficial temporal artery and its concomitant vein were used as recipient vessels, apart from two cases where previous surgery and flame burns excluded these choices, for which facial arteries and veins were used instead. Primary closure of the donor-site was possible in six cases; with skin grafting performed for the other three patients. All donor sites healed without complications. The ALT flap offers the advantage of customizable size, option of fascia lata as vascularized dural replacement, and minimal flap atrophy typical of muscle flaps. Indications include very large defects, defects with exposed prosthesis, or defects with bone or dural loss. Our experience lends credible support to the use of customized free ALT flaps to achieve functional and cosmetically superior result for the reconstruction of large scalp defects, especially with bone exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.


Lin P.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Cabrera R.,Chang Gung University | Chew K.-Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Kuo Y.-R.,Chang Gung University
Microsurgery | Year: 2014

Background: Free tissue transfers performed in patients with hematological diseases represent significant challenges for micro-surgeons. There are rare literatures that address the outcome in these patients. Therefore, we collected our database, analyzed the outcome, reliability, and related-management of microsurgical technique in the patients with hematological diseases. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 20 patients with hematological disorders who received free tissue transfers during 20-years period in a single microsurgical center was done. Eleven patients who received head and neck reconstruction were found to have hyperfibrinogenemia. Seven patients with reactive thrombocytosis after trauma, and two patients with leukemia had soft tissue defects in the upper and lower extremities. Twentysix flaps were used for free tissue transfers. Intra-operatively all patients received intravenous 5,000 Ud of heparin post immediate reperfusion. Anti-coagulant medication such as Dextran-40 or prostaglandin-E1 (PGE1) was given postoperatively. Results: Twenty-three of the 26 free flaps survived without vascular compromise. Intra-operatively all patients received intravenous 5,000 Ud of heparin post immediate reperfusion, and anti-coagulant medication such as Dextran-40 or prostaglandin-E1 was given to the patients postoperatively. The three failed cases were found in patients with hyperfibrinogenemia and needed further reconstruction with another flap. The overall success rate was 88.5% (23/26). Conclusions: Hematologic disorder is not a predicted factor of free flap failure. The key factors for success flap survival in patients with hematologic disorders include preoperative knowledge of the medical condition and monitoring potential post-operative complications, aggressive hematologist consultations, and meticulous non-traumatic surgical anastomosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kwek J.W.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | H'Ng M.W.C.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Chew S.H.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital Laboratory | Tay E.H.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

Polypoid endometriosis, in contrast to typical (nonpolypoid) endometriosis, presents as masses that project from a serosal or mucosal surface or from the lining of an endometriotic cyst. Generally large, these masses can simulate a malignant tumor on imaging and at surgery. We report a case of florid polypoid endometriosis arising from the cervix with extension into the left parametrium and involving the left ureter, mimicking a locally advanced cervical malignancy on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG.


Fabila T.S.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Menghraj S.J.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2013

The advantages of video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in children have led to its increased usage over the years. VATS, however, requires an efficient technique for one lung ventilation. Today, there is an increasing interest in developing the technique for lung isolation to meet the anatomic and physiologic variations in infants and children. This article aims to provide an updated and comprehensive review on one-lung ventilation strategies for infants and children undergoing VATS. Search of terms such as 'One lung ventilation for infants and children', 'Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery for infants and children', and 'Physiologic changes during one lung ventilation for infants and children' were used. The search mechanics and engines for this review included the following: Kandang Kerbau Hospital (KKH) eLibrary, PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. During the search the author focused on significant current and pilot randomized control trials, case reports, review articles, and editorials. Critical decision making on what device to use based on the age, weight, and pathology of the patient; and how to use it for lung isolation are discussed in this article. Furthermore, additional information regarding the advantages, limitations, techniques of insertion and maintenance of each device for one lung ventilation in infants and children were the highlights in this article.


Teoh W.C.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Teo S.Y.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital | Ong C.L.,Kandang Kerbau Womens and Childrens Hospital
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Large extraluminal gastrointestinal tumors (GISTs) may present as pelvic masses and thus mimic gynecological neoplasms in female patients. On clinical examination and pelvic ultrasound, these tumors resemble pedunculated fibroids or ovarian tumors. Multidetector computed tomography (CT), with its ability to perform isotropic multiplanar reconstruction, is useful in differentiating GISTs from true gynecological masses by demonstrating the pedicle sign connecting a pelvic GIST to its organ of origin. This allows a preoperative diagnosis to be made, which may be helpful in guiding therapeutic options and management. We present two cases of GISTs presenting as pelvic masses in which ultrasound findings suggested a gynecological cause, but multidetector CT with multiplanar reconstruction was able to determine their true organ of origin. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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