Kanazawa, Japan
Kanazawa, Japan

Kanazawa University is a national university of Japan located in the city of Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture.Kanazawa University is divided into two main campuses: Kakuma and Takaramachi. Student enrollment is about 11,000 including 350 international students. Wikipedia.

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Shin - Etsu Chemical Co., Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science, Technology and Kanazawa University | Date: 2017-08-30

The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a diamond substrate, including: a first step of preparing patterned diamond on a foundation surface, a second step of removing a foreign substance adhered on a wall of the patterned diamond prepared in the first step, and a third step of growing diamond from the patterned diamond prepared in the first step to form the diamond in a pattern gap of the patterned diamond prepared in the first step. There can be provided a method for manufacturing a diamond substrate with few dislocation defects, in which generation of abnormal growth particles are suppressed.

Kanazawa University and Kanazawa Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-09-06

An object is to provide a method for producing a polysaccharide derivative without using a catalyst, a cocatalyst, or an active compound by esterification, etherification, or the like, from a polysaccharide such as cellulose as a source material, while maintaining a high molecular weight. Another object is to provide a method for producing a cellulose derivative in a separated condition directly from biomass containing lignocellulose. A method for producing a polysaccharide derivative of the present invention is characterized in that a reaction is carried out in a mixture comprising: a source material comprising a polysaccharide; an ionic liquid for which the pKa of a conjugate acid of an anion in DMSO is 12 to 19 and which is capable of producing a carbene; and a chain or cyclic ester compound or an epoxy compound. Preferably as a source material containing a polysaccharide, a biomass source material containing lignocellulose is used.

Shin - Etsu Chemical Co., Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science, Technology and Kanazawa University | Date: 2017-08-30

The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a diamond substrate, including: a first step of preparing patterned diamond on a foundation surface, a second step of growing diamond from the patterned diamond prepared in the first step to form the diamond in a pattern gap of the patterned diamond prepared in the first step, a third step of removing the patterned diamond prepared in the first step to form a patterned diamond composed of the diamond formed in the second step, and a fourth step of growing diamond from the patterned diamond formed in the third step to form the diamond in a pattern gap of the patterned diamond formed in the third step. There can be provided a method for manufacturing a diamond substrate which can sufficiently suppress dislocation defects, a high-quality diamond substrate, and a freestanding diamond substrate.

Kanazawa University and Sumitomo Seika Chemicals Co. | Date: 2017-07-05

The present invention provides a polyolefin-based resin composition that has improved resilience while maintaining mechanical strength and stretching properties, as well as a molded article and a polyolefin-based resin film formed from this composition. The polyolefin-based resin composition comprises a polyolefin-based resin, a polyalkylene carbonate resin, and an ionic liquid. The polyolefin-based resin film of the present invention is formed by molding the polyolefin-based resin composition and is stretched at least in a monoaxial direction.

A power generation element of inverse magnetostrictive type has: a first power generation part including a first magnetostrictive rod made of magnetostrictive material, a first coil wound around the first magnetostrictive rod, and a first magnetic rod having appropriate rigidity and a shape to apply a uniform compressive force or tensile force to the first magnetostrictive rod and being placed in parallel with the first magnetostrictive rod; a frame made of magnetic material bent in a substantially U shape, whose one end and other end across the bent location constitute a fixed end and free end, respectively; and a magnet. The power generation element can suppress the loss of kinetic energy while vibrating so that vibration will last long. The power generation element can be used in an actuator.

Sakurai T.,Kanazawa University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Orexin deficiency results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy in many mammalian species, including mice, dogs, and humans, suggesting that the orexin system is particularly important for normal regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, and especially for maintenance of wakefulness. This review discusses animal models of narcolepsy; the contribution of each orexin receptor subtype to the narcoleptic phenotypes; and the etiology of orexin neuronal death. It also raises the possibility of novel therapies targeting the orexin system for sleep disorders including insomia and narcolepsy-cataplexy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yamashima T.,Kanazawa University
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by slowly progressive neuronal death, but its molecular cascade remains elusive for over 100 years. Since accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (also called granulo-vacuolar degenerations) represents one of the pathologic hallmarks of degenerating neurons in AD, a causative connection between autophagy failure and neuronal death should be present. The aim of this perspective review is at considering such underlying mechanism of AD that age-dependent oxidative stresses may affect the autophagic-lysosomal system via carbonylation and cleavage of heat-shock protein 70.1 (Hsp70.1). AD brains exhibit gradual but continual ischemic insults that cause perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, calpain activation, amyloid β deposition, and oxidative stresses. Membrane lipids such as linoleic and arachidonic acids are vulnerable to the cumulative oxidative stresses, generating a toxic peroxidation product 'hydroxynonenal' that can carbonylate Hsp70.1. Recent data advocate for dual roles of Hsp70.1 as a molecular chaperone for damaged proteins and a guardian of lysosomal integrity. Accordingly, impairments of lysosomal autophagy and stabilization may be driven by the calpain-mediated cleavage of carbonylated Hsp70.1, and this causes lysosomal permeabilization and/or rupture with the resultant release of the cell degradation enzyme, cathepsins (calpain-cathepsin hypothesis). Here, the author discusses three topics; (1) how age-related decrease in lysosomal and autophagic activities has a causal connection to programmed neuronal necrosis in sporadic AD, (2) how genetic factors such as apolipoprotein E and presenilin 1 can facilitate lysosomal destabilization in the sequential molecular events, and (3) whether a single cascade can simultaneously account for implications of all players previously reported. In conclusion, Alzheimer neuronal death conceivably occurs by the similar 'calpain-hydroxynonenal-Hsp70.1-cathepsin cascade' with ischemic neuronal death. Blockade of calpain and/or extra-lysosomal cathepsins as well as scavenging of hydroxynonenal would become effective AD therapeutic approaches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yokoi T.,Kanazawa University | Nakajima M.,Kanazawa University
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2013

microRNAs (miRNAs) represent the most abundant class of gene expression regulators that bind complementarily to transcripts to repress their translation or mRNA degradation. These small (21-23 nucleotides in length) noncoding RNAs are derived through a multistep process by miRNA genes located in genomic DNA. Because miRNAs regulate fundamental cellular functions, their dysregulation affects a large range of physiological processes, such as development, immune responses, metabolism, and diseases as well as toxicological outcomes. Cancer-related miRNAs have been extensively studied; however, the roles of miRNAs in xenobiotic metabolism and in toxicology have only recently been explored. This review focuses on the current knowledge of miRNA-dependent regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and nuclear receptors and the associated potential toxicological implications. The potential modulation of toxicology-related changes in miRNA expression, the role of miRNA in immune-mediated drug-induced liver injuries, the use of circulating miRNAs in body fluids as potential toxicological biomarkers, and the link between miRNA-related pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions are highlighted. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at subsecond to sub-100-ms temporal and submolecular spatial resolution. Unlike fluorescence microscopy, wherein the subset of molecular events that you see is dependent on the site where the probe is placed, dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules function. Here we present protocols for HS-AFM imaging of proteins in action, including preparation of cantilever tips, step-by-step procedures for HS-AFM imaging, and recycling of cantilevers and sample stages, together with precautions and troubleshooting advice for successful imaging. The protocols are adaptable in general for imaging many proteins and protein-nucleic acid complexes, and examples are described for looking at walking myosin, ATP-hydrolyzing rotorless F(1)-ATPase and cellulose-hydrolyzing cellulase. The entire protocol takes 10-15 h, depending mainly on the substrate surface to be used.

Miyasaka H.,Kanazawa University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Charge transfer (CT) of D0A0 D δ+Aδ- not only involves an electron transfer from D to A, but also generates a new spin set of S = 1/2 spins with an exchange interaction. Therefore, the control of CT in multidimensional frameworks could be an efficient way to design electronically/magnetically functional materials. The use of redox-active metal complexes as D and/or A building blocks expands the variety of such D/A frameworks with the formulation of DmA n (m, n ≥ 1), permitting the design of donor/acceptor metal-organic frameworks (D/A-MOFs). This Account summarizes our ongoing research on the design of D/A-MOFs and on the systematic control of CT in such D/A-MOFs toward the discovery of unique electronic/magnetic materials exhibiting nontrivial phenomena. For this purpose, the D/A combinations of carboxylate-bridged paddlewheel-type diruthenium(II,II) complexes ([Ru 2II,II]) that act as one-electron (1e-) donors and polycyanoorganic acceptors such as 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) and N,N′-dicyanoquinodiimine (DCNQI) have been chosen.Even in the covalently bonded motif, the CT in this system is systematically dependent on the intrinsic ionization potential (ID) and electron affinity (E A) of the D and A units, respectively, which is controllable by chemical modification of the D/A units. As we consider the energy difference between the HOMO of D and the LUMO of A (ΔEH-L(DA)) instead of hνCT ID - EA|, the neutral (N) and ionic (I) states can be defined as follows: (i) the D/A materials with ΔE H-L(DA) > 0 (i.e., the LUMO level of A is higher than the HOMO level of D) should be neutral, and (ii) complexes adopted when ΔE H-L(DA) < 0 are, meanwhile, ionic. Materials located near ΔEH-L(DA) ≈ 0, that is, at the boundary between the N and I phases, are candidates for the N-I transition driven by external stimuli such as temperature, pressure, and photoirradiation. Even in the ionic state, two distinct states could be isolated for the D2A type: (ii-1) the 1e- transferred D2A-MOFs provide mixed-valence systems of D+D0A- possibly involving intervalence CT, which produce magnetic correlations via radical A- units, and (ii-2) when the 2e- reduced form of A (e.g., TCNQ2-) is energetically favored beyond the on-site Coulomb repulsion on A, the oxidation state of D+2A2- is produced, for which magnetic measurements reveal a paramagnetic state attributed to the isolated D + units.The interspatial Coulombic interaction is another factor in determining the charge distribution in materials, which is related to the spatial Coulombic stability of D/A packing and possibly yields a mixture of N and I domains when it is more advantageous to get Coulombic gain than in the uniform N or I phase. Such a phase could be observed at the boundary between N and I phases involving the N-I transition.These charge-distributed states/phases are systematically demonstrated in a D/A-MOF system made by the combination of [Ru2II,II] and TCNQ/DCNQI; however, we immediately recognize the charge distribution of D/A-MOF only by understanding the nature of the starting D/A units. The present D/A-MOF system should be an intriguing platform to look for new functionalities with synergistic correlations among charge, spin, and lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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