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Chakraborti C.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Indian Journal of Pharmacology

Presence of vitamin D receptors in noncalcemic tissues and subsequent identification of its involvement in growth factor(s)-mediated cellular function suggested its probable beneficial role in genesis, progression and survival of cancerous growths. Data collected from both in vitro and in vivo studies are highly optimistic regarding its potential in prevention and regression of colorectal, prostate and breast cancers. The vitamin has been found to interfere with the transduction pathways of various growth factor(s)-activated receptors (receptor tyrosine kinases) thereby modulating transcription and alteration of genomic functions resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis and facilitation of cell differentiation and apoptosis. It also increases the level of an endogenous protein - cystatin D, which possesses antitumor and antimetastatic property, by facilitation of the expression of the gene coding for it. Though not as a primary anticancer agent, this vitamin may be used for the prevention of cancer and included as an adjuvant in combination chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Source

Saha P.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Purpose: To develop ampicillin trihydrate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles by modified ionic gelation method and evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Methods: Ampicillin trihydrate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method with the aid of sonication. Parameters such as the zeta potential, polydispersity, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release of the nanoparticles were assessed for optimization. The antibacterial properties of the nanoparticle formulation were evaluated and compared with that of a commercial formulation (reference). Results: Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanoparticles were in the nanosize range but irregular in shape. Concentrations of 0.35 %w/v of chitosan and 0.40 %w/v sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and a sonication time of 20 min constituted the optimum conditions for the preparation of the nanoparticles. In vitro release data showed an initial burst followed by slow sustained drug release. The nanoparticles demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity to plain nanoparticles and the reference, due probably to the synergistic effect of chitosan and ampicillin trihydrate. Conclusion: Modified ionic gelation method can be utilized for the development of chitosan nanoparticles of ampicillin trihydrate. Polymer and crosslinking agent concentrations and sonication time are rate-limiting factors for the development of the optimized formulation. The chitosan nanoparticles developed would be capable of sustained delivery of ampicillin trihydrate. © Pharmacotherapy Group. Source

Sahoo S.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Chakraborti C.K.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Naik S.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Mishra S.C.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Nanda U.N.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Purpose: To evaluate physicochemical changes in ciprofloxacin following incorporation in Carbopol polymeric composites. Methods: The ciprofloxacin and Carbopol were mixed in water in a drug:polymer ratio of 1:5 (w/w) and homogenized to produce uniform composites. X-ray powder diffraction analysis of the pure ciprofloxacin and the Carbopol polymeric composites of the drug were obtained using a powder diffractometer. Spectra for the materials were also generated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope interfaced with an infrared (IR) microscope operated in reflectance mode. Results: Based on the Hanawalt system, three prominent x-ray diffractogram (XRD) peaks of the pure ciprofloxacin and the drug in the polymeric composites exhibited d-spacing at similar 2 θ values, but the relative intensity of these peaks was higher in the polymeric composites. FTIR analysis indicates that there were intermolecular hydrogen bonding and esterification between the drug and polymer in the polymeric composites. Conclusion: The changes that occurred in ciprofloxacin indicate increase in stability, decrease in solubility and delayed release of the drug from polymeric composites which could facilitate the formulation of a sustained release form of the drug. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Source

Sahoo S.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Chakraborti C.K.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Behera P.K.,Sambalpur University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

Very few formulations are available, at present, from which the drug is absorbed uniformly, so that safe and effective blood level of Ciprofloxacin could be maintained for a prolonged period. Considering this limitation, a controlled release mucoadhesive suspension of Ciprofloxacin with Carbopol polymer (Carbopol940) has been prepared following a novel method of ultrasonication. The chemical interaction between Ciprofloxacin and polymer in formulation has been studied by FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy. From the spectral interpretation, it has been found that in formulation, the carboxylic groups of Ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of Carbopol940 undergo chemical interaction, leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The formation of micellies due to esterification and hydrogen bonding causes more drug entrapment and a stable formulation. Due to that the formulation of Ciprofloxacin gives better controlled release and mucoadhesive action in the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, Carbopol940 could be considered as an effective carrier for Ciprofloxacin. Source

Chakraborti C.K.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Sahoo S.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Behera P.K.,Sambalpur University | Sahoo A.M.,Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

To study in vitro antibacterial activities of mucoadhesive suspensions containing Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin, three different formulations of each drug were prepared by using three polymers, such as Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Carbapol934 (C934) and Carbapol940 (C940), along with some common ingredients (bases). For the antibacterial activities study of the samples, agar well diffusion method was performed taking Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Considering the overall antibacterial activities, it could be mentioned that HPMC containing formulations were superior to others in most of the cases.Amongst C934 and C940 containing suspensions, the former was more potent than the later. Antibacterial activities of most of the formulations were either more effective or similar to those of corresponding drugs in water against the strains used in the study. Only few formulations were inferior to the corresponding drugs in water. Ciprofloxacin in citrate buffer was not better than Ciprofloxacin containing suspensions. Samples like both marketed suspensions and discs of different drugswere inferior to all the formulations and corresponding drugs in water/Ciprofloxacin in citrate buffer. The negative controls of the study, i.e., the different bases, distilled water and citrate buffer did not show any antibacterial activity. Source

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