Honma M.,National Institute of Mental Health |
Honma M.,Showa University |
Yoshiike T.,National Institute of Mental Health |
Yoshiike T.,Kanagawa Psychiatric Center |
And 3 more authors.
Appropriate inhibitory response control is associated with goal-directed behavior. Sleep accelerates the offline consolidation of acquired motor skills that are explicitly predictable; however, the effect of sleep on implicit (unpredictable) motor skills remains controversial. We speculated that a key component of response inhibition skill differentiates between these skill consolidation properties because explicit prediction can minimize the inhibitory efforts in a motor skill. We explored the offline skill learning properties of response inhibition during sleep and wakefulness using auditory Go and Go/Nogo tasks. We attempted to discriminate the possible effects of time elapsed after training (12 or 24h), post-training sleep/wake state (sleep or wakefulness), and time of day (nighttime or daytime) in 79 healthy human subjects divided into 6 groups that underwent various sleep regimens prior to training and retesting. We found that delayed response inhibition skill improvement was achieved via a simple passage of daytime, regardless of the participants alertness level. Our results suggest that sleep-independent neuroplasticity occurs during the daytime and facilitates a delayed learning of response inhibition skill. Source
Moriwaki K.,Tokyo Womens Medical University |
Neuner T.,University of Regensburg |
Hubner-Liebermann B.,University of Regensburg |
Hausner H.,University of Regensburg |
And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Background: Intercultural differences influence acute inpatient psychiatric care systems. Aims: To evaluate characteristics of acute inpatient care in a German and a Japanese hospital. Method: Based on a sample of 465 admissions to the Psychiatric State Hospital Regensburg (BKR) and 91 admissions to the Hirakawa Hospital (HH) over a six-month period in 2008, data from the psychiatric basic documentation system (BADO) were analysed with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, treatment processes and outcome indicators. Results: Schizophrenia and related psychosis was the most common diagnosis in both hospitals. Cases at the BKR were admitted more quickly after onset of the present episode. Global Assessment of Psychosocial Functioning (GAF) ratings at admission were lower at the HH. Most admissions to both hospitals received psychopharmacological treatment, but more at the HH received psychotherapy. Length of stay was significantly longer at the HH (75 days) than at the BKR (28 days). Admissions to the HH were more improved with regard to GAF and clinical global impression (CGI). Conclusions: Acute admissions in Germany provide intensive care with short hospitalization as crisis intervention. For acute admissions in Japan, comprehensive care for severe mental illness precedes emergency admissions and achieves greater improvement with longer hospitalization. © The Author(s) 2012. Source
Itahashi T.,Showa University |
Yamada T.,Showa University |
Nakamura M.,Showa University |
Nakamura M.,Kanagawa Psychiatric Center |
And 11 more authors.
Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. Source
Nakamura M.,Kanagawa Psychiatric Center
Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica
It has been reported that approximately one third of patients with major depression are medication-resistant. In spite of partial responsiveness to antidepressants, most of the medication-resistant patients remain incompletely remitted without successful social reintegration. Symptom severity could be mild to moderate for many of them due to the incomplete remission, and, thus, electroconvulsive therapy is not applicable for them. However, they usually feel some difficulty performing cognitive behavioral therapy or social rehabilitation training due to residual symptoms such as thought inhibition and hypobulia. Under such conditions, those patients are longing for treatment options complementary to antidepressants, for less painful social reintegration. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. The main reason for the FDA approval was that rTMS had shown similar effectiveness (effect size around 0.39 in a recent meta-analysis) to antidepressants for medication-resistant patients without serious adverse effects. TMS is a brain stimulation methodology employing magnetic energy which can penetrate the skull bone without energy decay, and, thus, eddy currents induced by TMS can stimulate cerebral cortices effectively and locally. When TMS is repetitively delivered over several hundreds of pulses within a session, stimulation effects can be observed beyond the stimulation period as aftereffects. Moreover, when a daily rTMS session is repeated over several weeks, rTMS could have antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of rTMS for depression have employed two kinds of rTMS protocol of high-frequency (facilitatory) rTMS over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS over the right DLPFC. Although the antidepressant action of rTMS over DLPFC has not been fully elucidated, the neuronal level hypothesis includes the induction of neuroplasticity and activation of the dopamine system, and the neuronal circuitry level hypothesis includes the activation of the left DLPFC and inhibition of the right DLPFC and (para) limbic system such as the subgenual cingulate cortex and amygdala. On the therapeutic application of rTMS in clinical psychiatry, neuroethics and low invasiveness should be fully considered along with a negative history of punitive electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomy. It is important to investigate the neurobiological mechanism of rTMS treatment and to place rTMS in a suitable position within comprehensive treatment algorithms of major depression. Source
Nishimura K.,Tokyo Womens Medical University |
Omori M.,Kanagawa Psychiatric Center |
Katsumata Y.,Tokyo Womens Medical University |
Sato E.,Keio University |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology
Objective. Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) has been intensively studied in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, those studies have mostly included patients who were treated with corticosteroids, which may itself induce NCI. We investigated NCI in corticosteroid-naive people with SLE who did not exhibit any overt neuropsychiatric manifestations. Methods. Forty-three inpatients with SLE who had no current or past neuropsychiatric history participated in the study. Patients and 30 healthy control subjects with similar demographic characteristics were given a 1-h battery of neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as scores at least 2 SD below the mean of the healthy control group on at least 2 of the 7 neurocognitive domains. Results of clinical, laboratory, and neurologic tests were compared regarding the presence of NCI. Results. NCI was identified in 12 patients (27.9%) with SLE and in 2 control subjects (6.7%). Patients with SLE showed a significant impairment compared with controls on tasks assessing immediate recall, complex attention/executive function, and psychomotor speed. We identified psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) as the factor that best differentiated the 2 groups. Further, we identified the score of the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 as an independent risk factor for NCI in patients with SLE. Conclusion. We conclude that reduced psychomotor speed is an SLE-specific pattern of NCI. Verbal-memory deficits that have been reported in patients with SLE were not evident among patients who were corticosteroid-naive. Our results indicate that impaired psychomotor speed may be added to the symptoms of early SLE. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2015. All rights reserved. Source