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PubMed | Shinshu University, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, University of Tsukuba and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate:propionate ratio were changed (P<0.05) in both groups during the peripartum period, whereas butyrate and acetate:butyrate ratio were only altered in the HY group. Blood cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in the HY group were higher (P<0.01) than those in the LY group. Principal component analysis revealed that milk yield and milk compositions were differently clustered between groups. These parameters showed similar direction with dry matter intake in the HY group and adverse direction in the LY group. Linear regression analysis indicated that butyrate was positively correlated with BHBA (P<0.05) in the HY group. This study suggests that cows in the HY group seem to accommodate appropriately to negative energy balance in early lactation through rumen fermentation.


PubMed | National Livestock Breeding Center, Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center, Misawa Medical Industry, Japanese National Institute of Animal Health and Research Institute for the Functional Peptides
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.750.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.330.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.880.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.530.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (P<0.01, r=0.538). A total of 29 vitrified embryos after warming and measuring the oxygen consumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.


Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Sakagami N.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Nishida K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Abe H.,Yamagata University | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

Oxygen consumption rate of invivo-derived porcine embryos was measured, and its value as an objective method for the assessment of embryo quality was evaluated. Embryos were surgically collected 5 or 6days after artificial insemination (AI), and oxygen consumption rate of embryos was measured using an embryo respirometer. The average oxygen consumption rate (F×1014/mol s-1) of the embryos that developed to the compacted morula stage on Day 5 (Day 0=the day of artificial insemination) was 0.58±0.03 (mean±standard error of the mean). The Day-6 embryos had consumption rates of 0.56±0.13, 0.87±0.06, and 1.13±0.07 at the early blastocyst, blastocyst, and expanded blastocyst stages, respectively, showing a gradual increase as the embryos developed. Just after collection, the average oxygen consumption rates of embryos that hatched and of those that did not hatch after culture were 0.60±0.04 and 0.50±0.04 for Day 5 (P=0.08) and 1.05±0.09 and 0.77±0.05 for Day 6 (P<0.05), respectively. The value and probability of discrimination by measuring the oxygen consumption rates of embryos to predict their hatching ability after culture were 0.56 and 63.6% for Day-5 embryos and 0.91 and 68.4% for Day-6 blastocysts, respectively. When Day-5 embryos were classified based on the oxygen consumption rate and then transferred non-surgically to recipient sows, three of the seven sows, to which embryos having a high oxygen consumption rate (≥0.59) were transferred, became pregnant and farrowed a total of 20 piglets. However, none of the four sows, to which embryos having low oxygen consumption rate (<0.59) were transferred, became pregnant. These results suggest that the viability of invivo-derived porcine embryos and subsequent development can be estimated by measuring the oxygen consumption rate. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Shinshu University, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

The effects of supplementing feed of cows in mid-to-late lactation with an active yeast product (Actisaf Sc 47) were evaluated using 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 33 Latin square design. The animals were fed a mixed ration with 33% neutral detergent fiber, consisting of timothy hay (29.8%), a commercial concentrate (70.0%) and commercial calcium triphosphate (0.2%), twice daily to meet 105% of their energy requirement. Yeast supplement was set at 0, 5 and 10g per day over 21-day periods, each of which consisted of 14days for adaptation followed by 7days of data collection. Milking performance, plasma metabolite parameters, rumen volatile fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and microbial properties were measured. Although there were no significant differences in feeding and milking performance or blood parameters associated with supplementation, the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen fluid tended to decrease (P=0.08). The population of Bacteroidetes tended to be less prominent (P=0.07) and the fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter significantly increased (P<0.05) in the rumen fluid of the yeast 10g group compared with that of the control. These data suggest that effects of supplementing live yeast to cows in mid-to-late lactation may be limited to microbial composition and fermentation characteristics in the rumen.


PubMed | Japanese National Institute of Animal Health, Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center, Yamagata University and Research Institute for the Functional Peptides
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Oxygen consumption rate of in vivo-derived porcine embryos was measured, and its value as an objective method for the assessment of embryo quality was evaluated. Embryos were surgically collected 5 or 6 days after artificial insemination (AI), and oxygen consumption rate of embryos was measured using an embryo respirometer. The average oxygen consumption rate (F 10(14)/mol s(-1)) of the embryos that developed to the compacted morula stage on Day 5 (Day 0 = the day of artificial insemination) was 0.58 0.03 (mean standard error of the mean). The Day-6 embryos had consumption rates of 0.56 0.13, 0.87 0.06, and 1.13 0.07 at the early blastocyst, blastocyst, and expanded blastocyst stages, respectively, showing a gradual increase as the embryos developed. Just after collection, the average oxygen consumption rates of embryos that hatched and of those that did not hatch after culture were 0.60 0.04 and 0.50 0.04 for Day 5 (P = 0.08) and 1.05 0.09 and 0.77 0.05 for Day 6 (P < 0.05), respectively. The value and probability of discrimination by measuring the oxygen consumption rates of embryos to predict their hatching ability after culture were 0.56 and 63.6% for Day-5 embryos and 0.91 and 68.4% for Day-6 blastocysts, respectively. When Day-5 embryos were classified based on the oxygen consumption rate and then transferred non-surgically to recipient sows, three of the seven sows, to which embryos having a high oxygen consumption rate ( 0.59) were transferred, became pregnant and farrowed a total of 20 piglets. However, none of the four sows, to which embryos having low oxygen consumption rate (< 0.59) were transferred, became pregnant. These results suggest that the viability of in vivo-derived porcine embryos and subsequent development can be estimated by measuring the oxygen consumption rate.


Sasaki K.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Motoyama M.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Yasuda J.,Animal Industry Research Institute | Yamamoto T.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

'Tenderness' has been an important sensory characteristic for beef, although 'tenderness' has not been commonly defined. On the other hand, ISO5492:1992 provides internationally established vocabularies for sensory analysis with simple definition. The aim of this study was texture characterization for three beef muscles cooked to four end-point temperatures using ISO5492:1992 texture terms in Japanese to develop objective sensory evaluation terms for beef texture other than 'tenderness.' Longissimus, semitendinosus, and psoas major muscles harvested from three Holstein steers were cooked to 45, 60, 72, and 92°C end-point temperatures and evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Correspondence analysis indicated that the 'chewiness' and 'hardness' defined in ISO5492 were distinguished in each muscle. Changes in the 'chewiness' and 'hardness' qualities during cooking were different from each other. These findings suggest that both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' as defined in ISO5492:1992 should be evaluated simultaneously to determine the sensory texture of beef.Warner-Bratzler shear force values (WBSFVs) were also correlated with ISO5492 'chewiness.' This finding suggests that WBSFV indicates ISO5492 'chewiness' rather than undefined 'tenderness'. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.


Shimmura T.,Azabu University | Bracke M.B.M.,Wageningen University | De Mol R.M.,Wageningen University | Hirahara S.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

To increase the validity of evaluations and facilitate expansion and maintenance of assessment systems, we constructed a database of studies on the welfare of laying hens around the world. On the basis of this database, we devised a science-based welfare assessment model. Our model includes measurements, levels and weightings based on the scientific studies in the database, and can clarify the advantages and disadvantages of housing systems for laying hens from the viewpoint of the five freedoms. We also evaluated the usefulness of our model by comparing it with environment-based Animal Needs Index (ANI), another science-based model called FOWEL, and animal-based measurements. Our model showed that freedom from injury, pain and disease, and freedom from discomfort were more secure in the cage system, while non-cage systems scored better for natural behavior and freedom from fear and distress. A significant strong-positive correlation was found between the animal-based assessment and the total scores of ANI (rs=0.94, P<0.05), FOWEL (rs=0.99, P<0.05) or our model (rs=0.99, P<0.05), which indicate that these different approaches to welfare assessment may be used almost interchangeably to 'measure' a common property ('overall laying hen welfare'). However, assessments using our model and FOWEL were more sensitive than ANI and can be applied to cage systems, which suggest that our model and FOWEL may have added value. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Nakamura K.,Azabu University | Tanaka T.,Azabu University | Nishida K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Uetake K.,Azabu University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

The purpose of this experiment was to establish behavioral indexes of piglet welfare. Forty-eight piglets were allocated to either four indoor pens or four outdoor pens (six piglets per pen). The indoor system was a commercial pen that consisted of a concrete floor and a slat floor. The outdoor system had a dirt paddock with a wooden hutch. Growth performance, salivary cortisol levels, skin lesions and behaviors of the piglets were monitored for 4weeks. Sixteen types of behaviors were recorded by using 2-min instantaneous scan sampling for 8h/day. Growth performance and salivary cortisol levels did not significantly differ between the two housing systems. On the other hand, skin lesions and behaviors were significantly affected by the housing system. The number of skin lesions was higher in the indoor system. In addition, piglets in the outdoor system showed more investigative and social-play behaviors than those in the indoor system. Piglets in the indoor system showed more resting, drinking, moving, fighting, and conflict behaviors than those in the outdoor system. We conclude that investigative, social-play and conflict behaviors may be effective indexes of the welfare level of piglets, especially investigative and conflict behaviors. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


PubMed | Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of veterinary medical science | Year: 2014

The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts.

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