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Watanabe H.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Toda M.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Sekido H.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Wellner A.,TU Dresden | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Scope: Heated foods often present low allergenicity, and have recently been used in specific oral immunotherapy for food allergies. However, the influence of heating on tolerogenicity of food allergens is not well elucidated. Here, we investigated biochemical, allergenic, and tolerogenic properties of heated egg white (EW) using a murine model of food allergy. Methods and results: Raw EWs were treated at 80°C for 15 min (80EW, mild heating condition), 100°C for 5 min (100EW, cooking condition), or 121°C for 40 min (121EW, retort pouch condition), and freeze-dried. A transgenic OVA23-3 mice model expressing T-cell receptor specific for ovalbumin (OVA, a major EW allergen) induced Th2 cells and IgE production, and presented intestinal inflammation when fed untreated EW diet. 80EW-fed mice presented only moderate inflammation but high Th2 responses. 100EW-fed mice did not present inflammation but induced tolerance as seen in reduced T-cell responses and IgE levels. 100EW demonstrated higher digestive stability and slower absorption in intestine, compared with untreated EW and 80EW. 121EW was strongly aggregated, was not absorbed well, and developed Th1 responses without tolerance induction. Conclusion: OVA in EW treated only under a particular heat condition (e.g. 100°C for 5 min) lost allergenicity, but possessed tolerogenicity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Suzuki R.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

To clarify the causative viruses of infectious gastroenteritis, fecal specimens were sent from the pediatric sentinel clinic in Kanagawa Prefecture except for Kawasaki City, Yokohama City, Yokosuka City, Sagamihara City, and Fujisawa City. About 50% of fecal specimens were not negative for causative viruses. A total of 374 fecal specimens which were known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were tested for human parechovirus (HPeV). HPeVs VP1 genes were detected in 15 samples from 374 fecal specimens which were tested from April 2008 to March 2011. Sequencing analysis of a 800-nt portion of the HPeV VP1 gene of these 8 strains and 7 specimens from April 2008 to March 2011 showed that one specimen in Septenber 2008 was classified as HPeV4 and 14 of the others were classified as HPeV1.


Miyazawa M.,Hirosaki University | Miyazawa M.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Kojima T.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Nakaji S.,Hirosaki University
Hirosaki Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Methylone, an analog of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a narcotic drug which is forbidden due to its abusability. However, a detailed behavioral toxicity and rewarding effect of methylone has not yet been reported to this date. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity and addictive effects of methylone. In order to detect the stimulant effect to central nerous system, a mouse behavioral toxicity test and a conditioned place preference (CPP) test were conducted by administering mehtylone, MDMA and methamphetamine (MAP). An immunohistochemical study was also performed to analyze ΔFosB, which is known to accumulate in the nucleus accumbens after chronic administration of the drugs of abuse. For determining the expression levels of ΔfosB mRNA in striatum, quantitative PCR analysis was also conducted by acute administration of methylone. Significant differences appeared in mice that were administered with 50 mg/kg and above of methylone. Methylone causes a similar qualitative behavioral effect as MAP, however not the same stereotyped behavior as MDMA. According to the result from CPP test, methylone of 2.5 mg/kg and above had shown a rewarding action. Chronic administration of methylone causes significant A FosB accumulation in the neurons of nucleus accumbens. Methylone and MDMA significantly induce ΔfosB mRNA in striatum. It is therefore suggested that methylone has psychoactive effects and can be considered as an addictive drug.


Kobayashi Y.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Miyazawa M.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Kamei A.,Kanagawa Academy Of Science And Technology | Abe K.,Kanagawa Academy Of Science And Technology | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

To determine the effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia, we performed gene expression profiling of the liver. Rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mulberry leaves for 7 weeks. Plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with mulberry leaves as compared with the untreated rats. DNA microarray analysis revealed that mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in α-, β- and !-oxidation of fatty acids, mainly related to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, and downregulated the genes involved in lipogenesis. Furthermore, treatment with mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. These results indicate that consumption of fatty acids and inhibition of lipogenesis are responsible for the reduction in plasma lipids caused by mulberry administration. In addition, mulberry treatment maintains the body's oxidative state at a low level despite enhancing fatty acid oxidation.


Fujise D.,Meijo University | Tsuji K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Fukushima N.,Meijo University | Kawai K.,Meijo University | Harada K.-I.,Meijo University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

In order to fully understand the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under natural conditions, an adaptable analytical method was developed as the first step β-Ionone, β-cyclocitral, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were simultaneously analyzed in addition to geosmin and 2-MIB using GC/MS with SPME. The slight modification of a known method allowed the simultaneous detection and quantification of these VOCs. The SIM of the 3-methyl-1-butanol was always accompanied by a shoulder peak, suggesting the presence of two compounds. In order to separate both compounds, the GC/MS conditions were optimized, and the additional peak was identified as 2-methyl-1-butanol by direct comparison of the authentic compound, indicating that the Microcystis strain always produces a mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Furthermore, it was found that 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were predominant in the dissolved fractions β-Cyclocitral was easily oxidized to provide the oxidation product, 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, which causes the blue color formation of cyanobacteria as a consequence of acid stress. The intact acid could be satisfactorily analyzed using the usual GC/MS without derivatization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ohnishi M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Watanabe Y.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Ono E.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Takahashi C.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | And 6 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic type of penA, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), is associated with reduced susceptibility to oral cephalosporins. To investigate the relatedness of N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility, we sequenced the penA genes of 32 isolates. Five different amino acid sequence types of PBP 2 were identified, but all seemed to be derivatives of pattern X of PBP 2 (PBP 2-X). However, multilocus sequence typing of the isolates showed that the isolates belonged to six different sequence types. As PBP 2-X was identified in three different sequence types, horizontal transfer of the penA allele encoding PBP2-X was suggested. We demonstrated that the penA gene could be transferred from an isolate with reduced susceptibility to a sensitive isolate by natural transformation. Comparison of the sequence of the penA-flanking regions of 12 transformants with those of the donor and the recipient suggested that at least a 4-kb DNA segment, including the penA gene, was transferred. During horizontal transfer, some of the penA alleles also acquired variations due to point mutations and genetic exchange within the allele. Our results provide evidence that the capacity for natural transformation in N. gonorrhoeae plays a role in the spread of chromosomal antibiotic resistance genes and the generation of diversity in such genes. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Kamizono S.,Kamiamakusa General Hospital | Ohya H.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Higuchi S.,Kamiamakusa General Hospital | Okazaki N.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Narita M.,JR Sapporo Hospital
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is believed to result from defective host immune response rather than from direct cell injury by the organism itself. In this context, emergence of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae may provide us with special opportunities to study the pathogenesis from a clinical point of view. In this report, three patients with intrafamilial M. pneumoniae infection are presented. M. pneumoniae was isolated with a Hayflick pleuropneumonia-like organism diphasic medium. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined by a broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were done to determine point mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. As a result, all three strains from the three intrafamilial cases had the same drug-resistant point mutation, specifically A-to-G transition at position 2063. However, their clinical courses were quite different; a 6-year-old girl suffered severe pneumonia, a 5-year-old girl had mild pneumonia, and a 3-year-old boy had only a fever of 1-day duration without pneumonia. Conclusions: Our clinical and laboratory observations strongly support the idea that the host immune maturity, rather than a virulence factor of the organism, is a major determinant factor of disease severity of M. pneumoniae infection and that drug resistance does not necessarily lead to a serious clinical outcome. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Suzuki M.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Kobayashi Y.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Kobayashi Y.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Hiraki Y.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Tropomyosin, a 35-38. kDa myofibrillar protein, represents a major allergen in molluscs, as well as in crustaceans. Besides tropomyosin, a 100. kDa allergen was newly detected in the disc abalone Haliotis discus discus. The 100. kDa allergen was purified from the muscle of the disc abalone by salting-out and hydroxyapatite HPLC and identified as paramyosin based on the determined amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments produced by lysylendopeptidase digestion. Based on analysis by fluorescence ELISA, as many as 16 of the 18 patient sera tested, reacted to the disc abalone tropomyosin. The same patient sera also reacted to the disc abalone paramyosin, although rather less potently than to tropomyosin, suggesting that paramyosin is a major allergen. Immunoblotting data showed that IgE-reactive paramyosin is distributed in some species of molluscs other than the disc abalone. Interestingly, cross-reactivity between paramyosin and tropomyosin was demonstrated by inhibition immunoblotting and inhibition ELISA. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ishiwatari R.,Geotec Inc. | Ishiwatari R.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Uemura H.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Uemura H.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Yamamoto S.,Soka University
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2014

We examined the vertical distribution of hopanoid hydrocarbons and perylene in sedimentary sections from Lake Biwa (Japan) and discuss the results with respect to paleoenvironmental information from around the lake region over the last 120. kyr.Moretene concentration was high above the sections where fall-out events of tephra (tephra AT) occurred ca. 30kyr before present (BP). This feature suggests that the tephra fall-out events created O2 deficient conditions, resulting in high activity of methane producing bacteria, and of methanotrophic moretene-producing bacteria becoming active above the tephra layer. Five sections at 10-20kyr, ca. 35kyr, ca. 70kyr, ca. 90kyr and ca.110kyr BP exhibited peaks in the ratio of 17α, 21β-22R-homohopane to 17β, 21β-22R-homohopane (hopC31αβ/ββ). The n-C23/n-C31 alkane ratio in these sections was 0.6±0.1 (n=49), very low if compared with typical characteristics of n-alkanes for a Sphagnum peat environment (n-C23/n-C31 ca. 3.6; Bingham et al., 2010). We conclude that Sphagnum peat may not have been an important contributor of n-alkanes over the past 120kyr. Comparison with previous pollen records for the lake region suggests that high hopC31αβ/ββ values may be caused by production of acidic soil from expansion of temperate conifer (e.g. Cryptomeria) forest under cold and wet climate conditions. The abundance of perylene relative to sediment or total organic carbon (TOC) was high in the sections at ca. 20kyr, ca. 70kyr and ca. 90kyr BP. These sections were approximately in accord with those having a maximum in hopC31αβ/ββ. This concordance indicates that the climatic conditions suitable for the production of perylene quinone in soil surrounding the lake coincided with those for a high hopC31αβ/ββ ratio. Thus, hopC31αβ/ββ and perylene/TOC might be useful as proxies of soil acidity, temperature and humidity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sano T.,Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

The performance of a new version of the HIV p24 antigen and antibody combination assays (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab) was evaluated by comparing it with three other fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, VIDAS HIV DUO Quick and Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab). The assays were examined with 200 HIV positive samples, 1,000 HIV negative samples, 30 samples (28 positives including 24 samples of subtype A, B, B', C, D, F, G, B/D, CRF01_AE in HIV-1 group M, one sample of HIV-1 group O, three samples of HIV-2 and two negatives) of one worldwide HIV performance panel, 59 samples of ten HIV-1 seroconversion panels and the WHO international standard HIV-1 p24 antigen. Both the sensitivity and specificity of Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab were 100%. All of the 28 positive samples in the worldwide HIV performance panel were positive. The days of the earliest detection in the ten seroconversion panels were the same in three assays (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab, Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo assay and VIDAS HIV DUO Quick). Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab which is a former version of the Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab detected the earliest positive sample one bleed slower than the other three assays in 5 of 10 seroconversion panels. The p24 antigen limit of detection was determined in two ways, using the WHO international standard and three samples from HIV-1 antigen panels; the values obtained were 1IU/mL and 3.5-9.9 pg/mL for Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab, 1U/mL and 7.1-9.9 pg/mL for Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo assay, 0.5IU/mL and 4.0-7.1 pg/mL for VIDAS HIV DUO Quick, and 32.0-56.5 pg/mL for Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab. In this study, we have shown that Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab has the sensitivity, specificity and p24 antigen limit of detection that is equal to those of two typical fourth-generation assays. This assay can be considered useful and reliable for HIV screening.

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