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Kamaura M.,Kanagawa Health Service Association | Fujii H.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | Mizushima S.,Yokohama City University | Tochikubo O.,Yokohama City University
Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: Observation of early changes in fasting plasma glucose level induced by post-smoking cessation weight gain is useful in predicting the risks of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We investigated the effect of post-smoking cessation weight gain on early changes in the risk of a high fasting plasma glucose (IFG) level (≥100 mg/dL). Methods: In 946 subjects who underwent repeated health examinations after smoking cessation, changes in body mass index (BMI) and the odds ratio (OR) for IFG risk (adjusted for sex, age, BMI, fasting plasma glucose at year 1, and alcohol consumption) were calculated every year for 3 years after smoking cessation. Results: After smoking cessation, the rate of BMI increase significantly increased in quitters: 2.36% at year 2 (never smokers: 0.22%, current smokers: 0.39%) and 0.46% at year 3 (never smokers: 0.14%, current smokers: 0.32%). However, it decreased by 0.15% at year 4 (never smokers: 0.12%, current smokers: 0.26%). The ORs for quitters did not significantly increase at any time during the follow-up period. However, among quitters who had smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, it was significantly higher (OR 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.01 at year 1 and 1.71, 1.23-2.38 at year 2). Conclusions: The time course of the risk of IFG after smoking cessation was similar to that for the rate of BMI increase. In contrast to the findings of previous reports, the increase in IFG risk after smoking cessation was brief and disappeared in the absence of a significant increase in BMI. © 2011 by the Japan Epidemiological Association. Source

Shingyoji M.,Chiba Cancer Center | Iizasa T.,Chiba Cancer Center | Higashiyama M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Imamura F.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: We have recently reported on the changes in plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in lung cancer patients and the efficacy of a PFAA-based, multivariate discrimination index for the early detection of lung cancer. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness and robustness of PFAA profiling for detecting lung cancer using new test samples.Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 171 lung cancer patients and 3849 controls without apparent cancer. PFAA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS).Results: High reproducibility was observed for both the change in the PFAA profiles in the lung cancer patients and the discriminating performance for lung cancer patients compared to previously reported results. Furthermore, multivariate discriminating functions obtained in previous studies clearly distinguished the lung cancer patients from the controls based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC = 0.731 ~ 0.806), strongly suggesting the robustness of the methodology for clinical use. Moreover, the results suggested that the combinatorial use of this classifier and tumor markers improves the clinical performance of tumor markers.Conclusions: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling, which involves a relatively simple plasma assay and imposes a low physical burden on subjects, has great potential for improving early detection of lung cancer. © 2013 Shingyoji et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ishihara N.,Kanagawa Health Service Association
Nihon eiseigaku zasshi. Japanese journal of hygiene | Year: 2014

The first reports of methylmercury intoxication appeared in 1865 and 1866. These reports had sensational effects in European countries, and were introduced not only in journals but also in newspapers. These two reports were referable in Japan at the latest in 1927. The formation of organic mercury in the production of acetoaldehyde was also referable in 1906 in Japan. In 1931 (one year before the start of acetoaldehyde production in Minamata) these important reports cited above were referable in Kumamoto University, and there were warnings about the toxicity of organic mercury and environmental pollution prior to the start of acetoaldehyde production. However, not only the plant, authorities (Ministry of Welfare), and Kumamoto Prefectural Office, but also the scientists completely ignored these reports. Waste was dumped into the environment without any treatment. Serious pollution of the environment by organic mercury started, which resulted in the outbreak of Minamata disease (=methylmercury intoxication). Source

Nishioka M.,Liberty Square Clinic | Imaizumi A.,Ajinomoto Co. | Ando T.,Ajinomoto Co. | Tochikubo O.,Kanagawa Health Service Association
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion. © 2013 Nishioka et al. Source

Miyagi Y.,Kanagawa Cancer Center | Higashiyama M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Gochi A.,Okayama University of Science | Akaike M.,Kanagawa Cancer Center | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. Methods and Findings: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer), regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a relatively simple plasma assay and imposes a lower physical burden on subjects when compared to existing screening methods. © 2011 Miyagi et al. Source

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