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Ohtani S.,Institute for Frontier Oral Science | Yamamoto T.,Kanagawa Dental College
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

When an unidentified body is found, it is essential to establish the personal identity of the body in addition to investigating the cause of death. Identification is one of the most important functions of forensic dentistry. Fingerprint, dental, and DNA analysis can be used to accurately identify a body. However, if no information is available for identification, age estimation can contribute to the resolution of a case. The authors have been using aspartic acid racemization rates in dentin (D-aspartic acid/L-aspartic acid: D/L Asp) as an index for age estimation and have obtained satisfactory results. We report five cases of age estimation using the racemization method. In all five cases, estimated ages were accurate within a range ±3 years. We conclude that the racemization method is a reliable and practical method for estimating age. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

We examined orexin-like immunoreactivity in the pituitary of the red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri). Orexin-B-immunoreactive (IR) cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)-containing cells in the pars distalis, and orexin-B-IR fibers corresponded to melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-containing fibers in the pars nervosa. In the pars distalis, orexin-B-IR puncta that were also immunoreactive for MCH were observed around the orexin-B-IR cells. In the ventral hypothalamus, orexin-B-IR and MCH-IR neurons were found in the nucleus lateralis tuberis. Immunoelectron-microscopic analysis revealed that the orexin-B-like substance co-localized with LH in secretory granules and with MCH in MCH-containing neurons. Some of the MCH secreted in the pituitary might participate in the modulation of LH secretion from the gonadotrophs, together with orexin-B, leading to food intake by the stimulation of growth hormone secretion from the somatotrophs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nozawa R.-S.,Hokkaido University | Nagao K.,Hokkaido University | Nagao K.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology | Masuda H.-T.,Hokkaido University | And 6 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) has an essential role in heterochromatin formation and mitotic progression through its interaction with various proteins. We have identified a unique HP1α-binding protein, POGZ (pogo transposable element-derived protein with zinc finger domain), using an advanced proteomics approach. Proteins generally interact with HP1 through a PxVxL (where x is any amino-acid residue) motif; however, POGZ was found to bind to HP1α through a zinc-finger-like motif. Binding by POGZ, mediated through its zinc-finger-like motif, competed with PxVxL proteins and destabilized the HP1α-chromatin interaction. Depletion experiments confirmed that the POGZ HP1-binding domain is essential for normal mitotic progression and dissociation of HP1α from mitotic chromosome arms. Furthermore, POGZ is required for the correct activation and dissociation of Aurora B kinase from chromosome arms during M phase. These results reveal POGZ as an essential protein that links HP1α dissociation with Aurora B kinase activation during mitosis. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Sugiyama T.,Kanagawa Dental College
Journal of dental research | Year: 2013

Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury induces persistent ectopic pain which spreads to a wide area in the orofacial region. Its exact mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in relation to ectopic orofacial pain caused by IAN transection (IANX). We assessed the changes in mechanical sensitivity of the whisker pad skin following IANX, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), and the functional significance of NO in relation to the mechanical allodynia following intra-TG administration of a chemical precursor to NO and selective nNOS inhibitors. IANX induced mechanical allodynia, which was diminished by intra-TG administration of selective nNOS inhibitors. NO metabolites and nNOS immunoreactive neurons innervating the lower lip were also increased in the TG. Intra-TG administration of nNOS substrate induced the mechanical allodynia. The present findings suggest that NO released from TG neurons regulates the excitability of TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin, and the enhancement of TG neuronal excitability may underlie ectopic mechanical allodynia.

Watabe H.,Kanagawa Dental College | Furuhama T.,Kanagawa Dental College | Tani-Ishii N.,Kanagawa Dental College | Mikuni-Takagaki Y.,Kanagawa Dental College
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2011

It is unclear how bone cells at different sites detect mechanical loading and how site-specific mechanotransduction affects bone homeostasis. To differentiate the anabolic mechanical responses of mandibular cells from those of calvarial and long bone cells, we isolated osteoblasts from C57B6J mouse bones, cultured them for 1week, and subjected them to therapeutic low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). While the expression of the marker proteins of osteoblasts and osteocytes such as alkaline phosphatase and FGF23, as well as Wnt1 and β-catenin, was equally upregulated, the expression of mandibular osteoblast messages related to bone remodeling and apoptosis differed from that of messages of other osteoblasts, in that the messages encoding the pro-remodeling protein RANKL and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were markedly upregulated from the very low baseline levels. Blockage of the PI3K and α 5β 1 integrin pathways showed that the mandibular osteoblast required mechanotransduction downstream of α 5β 1 integrin to upregulate expression of the proteins β-catenin, p-Akt, Bcl-2, and RANKL. Mandibular osteoblasts thus must be mechanically loaded to preserve their capability to promote remodeling and to insure osteoblast survival, both of which maintain intact mandibular bone tissue. In contrast, calvarial Bcl-2 is fully expressed, together with ILK and phosphorylated mTOR, in the absence of LIPUS. The antibody blocking α 5β 1 integrin suppressed both the baseline expression of all calvarial proteins examined and the LIPUS-induced expression of all mandibular proteins examined. These findings indicate that the cellular environment, in addition to the tridermic origin, determines site-specific bone homeostasis through the remodeling and survival of osteoblastic cells. Differentiated cells of the osteoblastic lineage at different sites transmit signals through transmembrane integrins such as α 5β 1 integrin in mandibular osteoblasts, whose signaling may play a major role in controlling bone homeostasis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

To recognize good mechanical properties and water-resistance of a dental resin, dimethacryloxyethyl-1,1,6,6-tetrahydro-perfluorohexamethylene- 1,6-dicarbamate (FDMHD) was newly synthesized. FDMHD initially was a white powder with m.p. 98.5-99.5°C. The copolymers of FDMHD and methyl methacrylate (MMA), FDMHD/MMA copolymers, were prepared to estimate the basic properties for dental resin materials. The compressive strength of FDMHD/MMA copolymers was almost the same compared with those of the copolymers of Bis-GMA or dimethacryloxyethyl-hexamethylene-1,6-carbamate (DMHD) and MMA. The bending, tensile, diametral tensile, impact strength and toughness of FDMHD/MMA copolymers containing 10.4 mol% FDMHD were higher than those of Bis-GMA/MMA copolymer, and the water sorption of FDMHD/MMA copolymers was lower than those of DMHD/MMA copolymers.

Kojo A.,Kanagawa Dental College
The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine | Year: 2010

Occlusal disharmony is induced by various conditions such as the loss of teeth and inappropriate vertical dimension of crowns, bridges, or dentures. Occlusal disharmony sometimes causes indefinite complaint syndromes, which may be associated with astrocytic hypertrophy and the reduction of numbers of neuronal somata and their dendritic spines in the hippocampus. Microglia monitors the condition of neurons and responds to their degeneration accompanying with astrocytes. However, the effect of occlusal disharmony on the microglia has not yet been investigated. We artificially increased the occlusal vertical dimension by placing dental resin on the upper molars in mice and immunohistochemically investigated the effects of the increase in the vertical dimension on microglia of the hippocampal formation using an antibody against ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), a marker protein for microglia. We measured the area occupied by Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus 1, 3, and 5 days after increasing the vertical dimension, and compared it with that of control mice. The hippocampal CA1 region contains vulnerable neurons and the dentate gyrus durable neurons. We found that the areas occupied by microglia in the hippocampal CA1 region increased, with the peak on the third day after increasing the vertical dimension, and it gradually declined by the fifth post-operative day. However, such an increase of the area occupied by microglia was not seen in the dentate gyrus. In conclusion, abnormal mastication may activate microglia in the area harboring vulnerable neurons, but not in the area harboring durable neurons.

Arisaka H.,Kanagawa Dental College
Anesthesia progress | Year: 2010

Gum elastic bougie (GEB), a useful device for difficult airway management, has seldom been used for nasotracheal intubation. Among 632 patients undergoing dental procedures or oral surgery, GEB was used successfully in 16 patients in whom conventional nasal intubation had failed because of anatomical problems or maldirection of the tip of the tracheal tube. We recommend that GEB should be applied from the first attempt for nasal intubation in patients with difficult airways.

Lee M.-C.-I.,Kanagawa Dental College
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The pathophysiology of hypertension or stroke is associated with an excess of ROS generation in the vascular system, and results in induction of various pathological cascades of cerebrovascular damage. We have demonstrated that electron spin resonance methods using a spin trap or spin probe will be useful for understanding redox status under conditions of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat or stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. We have used electron spin resonance imaging and noninvasive L-band electron spin resonance to characterize the higher degree of brain oxidative stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the Wistar-Kyoto rat brain, and the lower extent of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. Indeed, we may be able to confirm propofol medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) as neuroprotective anesthesia and crocetin as antioxidant food factor against human stroke after screening for antioxidant properties in stroke models such as stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Thus, our electron spin resonance biomedical application suggests that it could be used to assess antioxidant effects on oxidative stress in the brain using spontaneously hypertensive rat and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. We hope that further advances in the instrumentation used for electron spin resonance imaging and the development of optimized nontoxic spin probes will make this technology even more promising for novel clinical prediction or noninvasive diagnosis of human stroke. After screening drugs or foods for antioxidant property using in vitro or in vivo electron spin resonance assessment, it will be possible to find and develop novel drugs or food factors with such properties for the prevention of stroke in the near future. ©2013 JCBN.

Matsumoto G.,Kanagawa Dental College
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate a poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLGC) membrane as a barrier for guided bone regeneration in the canine mandible and to compare it to a nonresorbable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Two wedge-shaped bone defects were created bilaterally in the mandibles of 12 beagle dogs. The bone defects in the left mandible were divided into three groups and treated as follows: PLGC membrane alone, PLGC membrane plus autogenous cortical bone chips, and titanium-reinforced expanded PTFE (TR-PTFE) membrane. The bone defects in the right mandible of each animal were left without membranes as a control. Computed tomography (CT) was performed at 3 and 6 months postoperative to evaluate bone regeneration. After a healing period of 6 months, the mandibles were removed en bloc for micro-CT and histologic analyses. CT analyses at 3 and 6 months showed that there was significantly more bone augmentation at all experimental sites than at the control sites. The volume of bone at defect sites covered with TR-PTFE was significantly greater than at defect sites covered with PLGC membrane with or without autogenous cortical bone. Micro-CT measurements showed that the volume of new bone formed at sites covered with TR-PTFE was significantly greater than at sites covered with PLGC membrane. However, the density of new bone was significantly higher at sites covered with PLGC membrane, with or without cortical bone, than at sites covered with TR-PTFE. Histologic analysis verified the presence of well-vascularized loose connective tissue in the pores of the PLGC membrane. Compared to TR-PTFE, the macroporous bioresorbable PLGC membrane did not significantly increase the amount of new bone in defect sites, but it facilitated the regeneration of mature bone.

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