Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center

Kawasaki, Japan

Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center

Kawasaki, Japan
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Sekine A.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center | Satoh H.,University of Tsukuba
Medical Oncology | Year: 2017

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations commonly present brain metastases (BM) at the time of NSCLC diagnosis or during the clinical course. Conventionally., the prognosis of BM has been extremely poor, but the advent of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved the prognosis in these patients. Despite the presence of the blood–brain barrier, EGFR-TKIs have dramatic therapeutic effects on both BM and extracranial disease. In addition, recent systemic chemotherapies reportedly play a role in controlling BM. These treatment modalities can potentially replace whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to prevent or delay neurocognitive decline. Therefore., how to utilize these treatments is one issue. The other issue is what kind of treatment is best for recurrence after TKI therapy. Recent reports have shown a positive effect of a combination therapy of EGFR-TKI and radiotherapy on BM. Although neurocognitive decline is underscored when WBRT is considered, a survival benefit from WBRT has been proven especially in the potential long survivors with good prognostic index, especially disease-specific graded prognostic index (DS-GPA). In this review, treatment strategy including chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy is discussed in terms of risk–benefit balance in conjunction with DS-GPA. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Yang J.C.H.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Wu Y.-L.,Guangdong Academy of Medical science | Schuler M.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Sebastian M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 24 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: We aimed to assess the effect of afatinib on overall survival of patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma through an analysis of data from two open-label, randomised, phase 3 trials. Methods: Previously untreated patients with EGFR mutation-positive stage IIIB or IV lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled in LUX-Lung 3 (n=345) and LUX-Lung 6 (n=364). These patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive afatinib or chemotherapy (pemetrexed-cisplatin [LUX-Lung 3] or gemcitabine-cisplatin [LUX-Lung 6]), stratified by EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion [del19], Leu858Arg, or other) and ethnic origin (LUX-Lung 3 only). We planned analyses of mature overall survival data in the intention-to-treat population after 209 (LUX-Lung 3) and 237 (LUX-Lung 6) deaths. These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00949650 and NCT01121393. Findings: Median follow-up in LUX-Lung 3 was 41 months (IQR 35-44); 213 (62%) of 345 patients had died. Median follow-up in LUX-Lung 6 was 33 months (IQR 31-37); 246 (68%) of 364 patients had died. In LUX-Lung 3, median overall survival was 28.2 months (95% CI 24.6-33.6) in the afatinib group and 28.2 months (20.7-33.2) in the pemetrexed-cisplatin group (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66-1.17, p=0.39). In LUX-Lung 6, median overall survival was 23.1 months (95% CI 20.4-27.3) in the afatinib group and 23.5 months (18.0-25.6) in the gemcitabine-cisplatin group (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.22, p=0.61). However, in preplanned analyses, overall survival was significantly longer for patients with del19-positive tumours in the afatinib group than in the chemotherapy group in both trials: in LUX-Lung 3, median overall survival was 33.3 months (95% CI 26.8-41.5) in the afatinib group versus 21.1 months (16.3-30.7) in the chemotherapy group (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36-0.79, p=0.0015); in LUX-Lung 6, it was 31.4 months (95% CI 24.2-35.3) versus 18.4 months (14.6-25.6), respectively (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94, p=0.023). By contrast, there were no significant differences by treatment group for patients with EGFR Leu858Arg-positive tumours in either trial: in LUX-Lung 3, median overall survival was 27.6 months (19.8-41.7) in the afatinib group versus 40.3 months (24.3-not estimable) in the chemotherapy group (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.80-2.11, p=0.29); in LUX-Lung 6, it was 19.6 months (95% CI 17.0-22.1) versus 24.3 months (19.0-27.0), respectively (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.81-1.83, p=0.34). In both trials, the most common afatinib-related grade 3-4 adverse events were rash or acne (37 [16%] of 229 patients in LUX-Lung 3 and 35 [15%] of 239 patients in LUX-Lung 6), diarrhoea (33 [14%] and 13 [5%]), paronychia (26 [11%] in LUX-Lung 3 only), and stomatitis or mucositis (13 [5%] in LUX-Lung 6 only). In LUX-Lung 3, neutropenia (20 [18%] of 111 patients), fatigue (14 [13%]) and leucopenia (nine [8%]) were the most common chemotherapy-related grade 3-4 adverse events, while in LUX-Lung 6, the most common chemotherapy-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (30 [27%] of 113 patients), vomiting (22 [19%]), and leucopenia (17 [15%]). Interpretation: Although afatinib did not improve overall survival in the whole population of either trial, overall survival was improved with the drug for patients with del19 EGFR mutations. The absence of an effect in patients with Leu858Arg EGFR mutations suggests that EGFR del19-positive disease might be distinct from Leu858Arg-positive disease and that these subgroups should be analysed separately in future trials. Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Maemondo M.,Miyagi Cancer Center | Inoue A.,Tohoku University | Kobayashi K.,International University of Japan | Sugawara S.,Sendai Kousei Hospital | And 19 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer with sensitive mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, but little is known about how its efficacy and safety profile compares with that of standard chemotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned 230 patients with metastatic, non-small-cell lung cancer and EGFR mutations who had not previously received chemotherapy to receive gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel. The primary end point was progression-free survival; secondary end points included overall survival, response rate, and toxic effects. RESULTS: In the planned interim analysis of data for the first 200 patients, progression-free survival was significantly longer in the gefitinib group than in the standard-chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death or disease progression with gefitinib, 0.36; P<0.001), resulting in early termination of the study. The gefitinib group had a significantly longer median progression-free survival (10.8 months, vs. 5.4 months in the chemotherapy group; hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.41; P<0.001), as well as a higher response rate (73.7% vs. 30.7%, P<0.001). The median overall survival was 30.5 months in the gefitinib group and 23.6 months in the chemotherapy group (P = 0.31). The most common adverse events in the gefitinib group were rash (71.1%) and elevated amino transferase levels (55.3%), and in the chemotherapy group, neutropenia (77.0%), anemia (64.6%), appetite loss (56.6%), and sensory neuropathy (54.9%). One patient receiving gefitinib died from interstitial lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: First-line gefitinib for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who were selected on the basis of EGFR mutations improved progression-free survival, with acceptable toxicity, as compared with standard chemotherapy. (UMIN-CTR number, C000000376.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Ogura T.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center | Taniguchi H.,Tosei General Hospital | Azuma A.,Nippon Medical School | Inoue Y.,National Hospital Organization Kinki Chuo Chest Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2015

A randomised, double-blind, phase II, dose escalation trial was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib, alone and when added to ongoing pirfenidone therapy, in Japanese patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 50 Japanese patients were randomised to receive nintedanib or placebo in one of three cohorts (nintedanib 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg twice daily for 14 days, or 150 mg twice daily for 28 days). Patients receiving pirfenidone at inclusion were stratified to every nintedanib dose group and placebo. Adverse events were reported in nine out of 17 patients receiving nintedanib alone and 10 out of 21 patients receiving nintedanib added to pirfenidone. All adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse event. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve at steady state for nintedanib and its metabolites tended to be lower when nintedanib was added to pirfenidone. Nintedanib had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone. In conclusion, further study is needed to evaluate the safety and tolerability profile of nintedanib when added to pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a trend toward lower exposure of nintedanib when it was added to pirfenidone. Copyright © ERS 2015.

Iwasawa T.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center
Japanese journal of radiology | Year: 2010

We evaluated the relation between the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the incidence of pneumothorax on computed tomography (CT) images. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of pneumothorax in 56 consecutive patients who died of IPF from the initial CT to death. We quantitatively analyzed a total of 207 CT images and measured the volume of the normal pattern (N-pattern) and each lesion pattern on the initial CT and their serial changes. The effects of pneumothorax and clinical and CT features on survival were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Pneumothorax occurred in 17 of 56 patients. Comparison of the pneumothorax (+) and (-) groups showed the initial vital capacity (VC) was lower (P = 0.005) and the follow-up period was shorter (P = 0.03) in the former group. The decrease in the N-pattern volume in the pneumothorax(+) group was significantly faster than in the pneumothorax(-) group (P = 0.013). Cox regression analyses identified a rapid decrease in N-pattern volume (P = 0.008) and a rapid decrease in VC (P = 0.002), but not pneumothorax, as significant predictors of poor survival. Pneumothorax in IPF patients is associated with lower VC and rapid deterioration of CT findings. The findings suggest that pneumothorax is a complication of advanced IPF.

Okuda R.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center | Hagiwara E.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center | Baba T.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center | Kitamura H.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center | And 2 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Backgroud Previous pirfenidone trials have only involved patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with mild-to-severe IPF in clinical practice. Methods The clinical records of 76 patients who were diagnosed with IPF and received pirfenidone were reviewed. Results The most frequent adverse event was anorexia, although the grade of anorexia in most patients was mild. Dose reduction of pirfenidone improved anorexia in 84% affected patients, which resulted in a high medication compliance rate. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC) at the initiation of pirfenidone therapy in this study was approximately 10% lower than that in previous clinical trials. The mean change in FVC during the 6-month period prior to the therapy initiation was -188 mL, which improved to -19 mL during the 6-month period after therapy. Significant attenuation in percentage predicted diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide decline was also achieved after pirfenidone therapy initiation. The efficacy of pirfenidone in attenuating the degree of FVC decline was higher in the group with FVC decline of ≥150 mL during the 6-month period prior to therapy initiation. The levels of serum markers, such as KL-6 and SP-D, were also lowered by the therapy. Conclusions These results showed that pirfenidone was well-tolerated and had beneficial effects in patients with mild-to-severe and/or progressive IPF. The degree of disease progression prior to the initiation of pirfenidone therapy had an impact on the response to the therapy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Takemura T.,Red Cross | Akashi T.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Kamiya H.,Red Cross | Ikushima S.,Red Cross | And 4 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2012

Aims: To evaluate the histological characteristics differentiating chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (chronic HP) with a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)-like pattern from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)/UIP. Methods and results: Surgical lung biopsy specimens from 22 patients with chronic HP diagnosed as having a UIP-like pattern upon histological examination and 13 patients with IPF/UIP were examined and the incidences of bronchiolitis, perilobular fibrosis, centrilobular fibrosis, bridging fibrosis, organizing pneumonia, fibroblastic foci, honeycombing, granulomas, giant cells, lymphocytic alveolitis and lymphoid follicles were compared. Bronchiolitis, centrilobular fibrosis, bridging fibrosis, organizing pneumonia, granulomas, giant cells and lymphocytic alveolitis were significantly more frequent among patients with chronic HP than among patients with IPF (all P<0.01). Conclusions: Centrilobular fibrosis, bridging fibrosis and organizing pneumonia, in addition to bronchiolitis, granulomas and giant cells, are characteristic features of chronic HP with a UIP-like pattern. These features are therefore important in differentiating chronic HP from IPF/UIP, as management strategies differ for the two disorders. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

Ikeda S.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center
Japanese journal of clinical oncology | Year: 2014

A 71-year-old female with Stage IIIB primary adenocarcinoma was administered a three-drug combination therapy consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin and bevacizumab as a first-line treatment based on the Phase II clinical trial. On the 32nd day after the fourth course of chemotherapy, the patient developed bloody sputum. She was found dead at home on the 34th day. Autopsy revealed a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage without diffuse alveolar damage. Endothelial cells of the small arteries and capillaries were swollen and desquamated, indicating that alveolar capillaries were injured. The similar pathological changes in blood vessels were also observed in the kidney and the digestive tract. Because diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by cisplatin and docetaxel has never been reported apart from interstitial pneumonitis, bevacizumab is the most suspicious drug for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in our case. Chest physicians and oncologists should be aware that although it is very rare, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage can develop during any course of chemotherapy with bevacizumab.

Ogata R.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society | Year: 2011

A 71-year-old man was referred because of fever and productive cough. His chest radiograph showed a large cavitary mass with an intracavitary mycetoma-like lesion in the left middle lung field. We undertook bronchoscopy and CT-guided biopsy, and both bronchial lavage fluid culture and CT-guided biopsy culture revealed Scedosporium apiospermum. On a diagnosis of lung scedosporiosis, he was treated with 200 mg/day voriconazole for 2 months, but his symptoms did not improve. Measurement of the plasma voriconazole level showed low plasma concentration levels (peak level: 2.15 microg/ml, trough level: 0.72 microg/ml). We then increased the voriconazole dosage from 200 mg/day to 400 mg/day. After that, his symptoms and chest radiograph findings improved immediately, accompanied by an elevated plasma voriconazole level (peak level: 5.13 microg/ml, trough level: 3.13 microg/ml). We believe that measurement of plasma voriconazole levels is useful to determine its dosage in lung scedosporiosis.

Tae I.,Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center
Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a syndrome that results from restricted blood flow through the pulmonary arterial circulation, which leads to a pathological increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and ultimately to right heart failure. The prognosis of patients with PAH has improved with the recent development of new medications. The need for new noninvasive diagnostic tools is increasing. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the gold standard for assessing the right ventricle (RV). Its high degree of reproducibility makes it ideal for monitoring changes in RV parameters in response to therapy. MR imaging can also provide both anatomical and functional information about pulmonary hemodynamics. This article reviews the current status of MR imaging of the right side of the heart and pulmonary circulation in patients with PAH and other associated pulmonary diseases. © 2013 Japanese Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

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