Kanagawa Cancer Research Institute

Yokohama-shi, Japan

Kanagawa Cancer Research Institute

Yokohama-shi, Japan
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Shimazaki J.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Shimazaki J.,Chiba University | Tsuji H.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Ishikawa H.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012

Background/Aim: Biochemical failure after radiotherapy for prostate cancer occurs infrequently, but some cases progress to a poor outcome. The aim of this study was to examine prognosis after biochemical failure. Patients and Methods: A total of 728 patients were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy, and biochemical failure occurred in 90 (12.4%). Their outcomes were examined according to risk factors, histological findings, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: Biochemical failure rates were 12%, 6%, and 15% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients. Most patients responded favorably to salvage therapy. Some high-risk patients (25%) progressed to poor outcome; half experienced failure after ADT, while the rest during ADT, indicating that ADT had a slight influence. Patients who died from their disease had approximately two years of biochemical failure-free time and three years of survival after failure. Their tumor showed the presence and the increased proportion of histologically highgrade growth patterns. Conclusion: Histological growth patterns and short biochemical failure-free time are prognostic factors for poor outcome regardless of ADT.

Yokoo H.,University of Toyama | Chiba S.,Oita University | Tomita K.,University of Toyama | Takashina M.,University of Toyama | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Sepsis is a major clinical challenge and septic encephalopathy is its nasty complication. The pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of septic encephalopathy are not well understood. This study sought to fully characterize sepsis-associated biochemical and histopathological changes in brains of mice after cecal ligation and puncture, regarded as a highly clinically relevant animal model of polymicrobial sepsis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were significantly up-regulated in brain tissues from septic mice, but to a much lesser extent when compared with those in peripheral tissues such as lungs. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was significantly increased in septic mice, as determined by the measurement of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue content. Sepsis resulted in increases in NADPH oxidase activity and expression of p47phox and p67phox and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase in brains, indicating that superoxide, produced by NADPH oxidase, reacts with NO to form peroxynitrite, that maybe lead to the loss of BBB integrity. Light and electron microscopic examination of septic mouse brain showed serious neuronal degeneration, as indicated by hyperchromatic, shrunken, pyknotic, and electron-dense neurons. These histopathogical changes were prevented by treatment with the free radical scavenger edaravone. Together, these results suggest that sepsis can lead to rapid neurodegenerative changes in brains via free radical species production and possibly subsequent injury to the BBB. We may also provide a potentially useful therapeutic tool for treating septic encephalopathy. © 2012 Yokoo et al.

Murakami S.,Kanagawa Cancer Center Hospital | Saito H.,Kanagawa Cancer Center Hospital | Sakuma Y.,Kanagawa Cancer Research Institute | Kondo T.,Kanagawa Cancer Center Hospital | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2012

Background: Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been found to have prognostic value. We previously reported the correlation between SUVmax and pathological invasive area, and determined an SUVmax cut-off value of 2.15 for predicting the recurrence potential of an invasive area of diameter 5 mm. Here, we evaluate the validity of FDG-PET for prediction of recurrence in pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: From February 2006 to May 2008, 100 patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma underwent complete resection at our hospital. Tumors were classified as air-type or solid-type based on thin-section computed tomography (TS-CT) findings and the influence of TS-CT classification, SUVmax, and clinicopathologic features were evaluated in terms of the incidence of recurrence. Results: Unlike air-type adenocarcinomas, recurrent disease was detected in 8 of 62 solid-type adenocarcinomas. SUVmax and diameter of invasive area were significantly correlated with recurrence and a shorter time to recurrence. All 8 recurrent cases had pathological invasive area >5 mm. All except one case of recurrence were solid-type adenocarcinomas with SUVmax ≥ 2.15. Three-year disease-free survival rates were 100% in air-type adenocarcinomas, 97.1% in solid-type adenocarcinomas with SUVmax < 2.15, and 74.1% in solid-type adenocarcinoma with SUVmax ≥ 2.15. Conclusion: Combined evaluation of TS-CT classification and SUVmax had significant value in predicting recurrence in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma, reflecting the aggressiveness of primary lung adenocarcinoma. Prediction of tumor aggressiveness could contribute to decision-making regarding the choice of surgical procedure and treatment after surgery. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Murakami S.,Kanagawa Cancer Center Hospital | Yokose T.,Kanagawa Cancer Center Hospital | Saito H.,Kanagawa Cancer Center Hospital | Sakuma Y.,Kanagawa Cancer Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2010

The fusion gene EML4-ALK (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene) was recently identified as a novel genetic alteration in non-small-cell lung cancer. The clinicopathological features of EML4-ALK-positive adenocarcinoma are reported to include its high incidence in young, non-smoking patients, tumors that show distinct solid or acinar growth patterns with or without signet-ring cell histology, and its mutually exclusive occurrence with mutations in EGFR and KRAS. However, the clinical findings have not been well described. Here, we report a case of EML4-ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma that showed multiple metachronous lesions on the pleura and pulmonary field, suspected to be a recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma after a 20-year disease-free interval. The slow clinical course may be characteristic of EML4-ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, long-term observation of patients with EML4-ALK-positive lung adenocarcinomas is required after surgery. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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