Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center

Kawasaki, Japan

Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center

Kawasaki, Japan
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Sakagami N.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Umeki H.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center Livestock Research Institute | Nishino O.,Nara Prefectural Livestock Technology Center | Uchiyama H.,Miyazaki Prefectural Livestock Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves. © 2012 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Sato E.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Okumura I.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Kokatsu Y.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center
Nematology | Year: 2013

The density of Pratylenchus penetrans in soil is known to be a major determinant in the severity of damage to Japanese radish, but soil chemical and microbial properties may also affect the severity. This study investigated the relationships between damage and the density of P. penetrans, soil chemical properties, such as pH (H2O), EC, available phosphate, NO3'N, NH4'N, total carbon and nitrogen, and microbial properties, such as microbial biomass and fungal and bacterial community structures, in 48 different plots in a field for 2 years. The density of P. penetrans estimated with real-time PCR was most significantly correlated with the damage to radish in both 2010 and 2011. The damage to radish caused by P. penetrans and the nematode density were negatively correlated with total carbon in soil in both years, suggesting that soil management leading to increased soil C could decrease the density of P. penetrans and hence the damage. Multiple regression models including the density of P. penetrans and the soil properties suggested that damage to radish was predictable with a higher probability for some of the soil chemical properties, such as total C and N, and the density of P. penetrans. The community structures of soil fungi and Pseudomonas spp. on the radish surface were different depending on the levels of damage to radish and the densities of P. penetrans. The results suggested that the damage to radish and the density of P. penetrans might be affected by the soil microbial community structure. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2013.


Makabe T.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Futamura T.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Noudomi T.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Wakakuwa M.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Arikawa K.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande and the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman are major pests of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc). fruits under greenhouse culture. To use thrips phototactic behavior for plant protection, we first determined the spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of T. tabaci by recording electroretinogram. We then measured the action spectrum of phototaxis in flight activity in both species. Also measured the correlation between attractiveness of light and air temperature in both species. The compound eye spectral sensitivity exhibited two large sensitivity bands each peaking at 362 nm and at 532 nm. Both F. occidentalis and T. tabaci were strongly attracted to wavelengths around 350 nm. The attractiveness of 350 nm light was much stronger than that of 525 nm. The number of attracted individuals decreased as the air temperature dropped. We examined whether ultravioletemitting traps reduced the damage to fruits due to the thrips in greenhouses. As a result, ultraviolet-emitting traps were as effective as spraying of insecticides, Clothianidin and Acephate. Extensive browning on peels was found in the fruits irradiated with the light whose wavelength was shorter than 300 nm.


Sato E.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Suga Y.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Kisaki C.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to compare the economic threshold (ET) of Pratylenchus penetrans in radish fields of andosols using the Baermann method and the combination method of soil compaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Soil samples were collected from 26 plots at depths of 0 to 30 and 30 to 60 cm before seeding of radishes. The number of P. penetrans in each sample was estimated by the Baermann method and the combination method. No P. penetrans was detected in 13 plots by the Baermann method, while the number of plots in which no P. penetrans was detected was only two by the combination method. The number of spots caused by P. penetrans on radishes harvested from the plots was also counted. It was difficult to determine the ET of P. penetrans estimated by the Baermann method, based on whether severe damage (more than 10 spots on average per radish) was seen. However, the ET of P. penetrans estimated by the combination method was determined at 5.3 J2 equivalents per 20 g dry soil. In plots with P. penetrans densities lower than the ET as evaluated by the combination method, the ratio of plots with no damage was 87%. The results suggest that the combination method has an advantage in the estimation of damage to radish by nematode. © 2011 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.


Wada S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Wada S.,Agro Kanesho Co. | Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Takada A.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2011

The effects of the non-fumigant nematicide imicyafos on soil nematode community structure and damage to radish caused by Pratylenchus penetrans were evaluated in two field experiments in consecutive years (2007 and 2008). Nematode densities in soil at 0-10 cm (the depth of nematicide incorporation) and 10 - 30 cm were measured. The application of imicyafos had a significant impact on the density of P. penetrans at 0-10 cm but had no effect on free-living nematode density. PCR-DGGE analysis conducted using extracted nematodes showed that the nematode community structure 12 d after application in 2007 was altered by the application of imicyafos at the 0-10 cm depth, but not at 10-30 cm. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the nematode community at harvest (89 and 91 d after application) between the control and imicyafos treatments in both depths and both years. In both years, the damage to radish caused by P. penetrans was markedly suppressed by the nematicide. Overall, the nematicide imicyafos decreased populations of P. penetrans in soil and thereby decreased damage to radish, while having little impact on the soil nematode community. © The Society of Nematologists 2011.


Tokiwa T.,Azabu University | Tokiwa T.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Kadekaru S.,Azabu University | Ito M.,Nagasaki Biopark | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2015

In February 2014, wild American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles from an artificial pond in the Kyusyu region, Japan, presented with coelomic and subcutaneous edema and erythema within the skin. A pathological examination of 57 tadpoles of American bullfrogs in the region was conducted to evaluate the disease. Crystal deposition of varying degrees was found in the kidneys of 35 tadpoles (61.4%). The crystals were transparent, pleomorphic in shape, highly birefringent in polarized light, and arranged in a radial pattern within the renal tubular lumen. Using Alizarin Red S stain and liquid chromatography, these crystals were identified as calcium oxalate. Severe coelomic and subcutaneous edema was observed in 7 of these 35 tadpoles (20.0%). Ammonia levels in coelomic fluid were extremely elevated (>1000 μg dl-1) in 4 tadpoles examined. These findings suggest that oxalate deposition in kidneys causes metabolic disorder with renal nephropathy. The source of the oxalate could not be determined; however, the presence of calcium oxalates in pond sediments, as revealed by liquid chromatography, suggested that the deposition was most likely due to ingestion of oxalate materials from the environment. This is the first report of oxalate nephropathy in free-living amphibians. © Inter-Research 2015.


Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Sakagami N.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Hashimura S.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Nakazawa Y.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the viability of vitrified biopsied bovine embryos. Bovine embryos ranging from the compacted morula to blastocyst stage on day 7 (day 0=day of estrus) were collected from donor females, biopsied for sexing, and vitrified with ethylene glycol (EG) 25% (v/v), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) 25% (v/v) and 0.3% (w/v) bovine serum albumin dissolved in PBS using 0.25-ml straws. We assessed the concentrations of cryoprotectants in the straw after in-straw dilution, and the percentages (v/v) were 6.9-7.7% for EG and 2.8-3.3% for DMSO. The pregnancy rate of vitrified-warmed embryos in the in-straw dilution group (ISD group) was 57.9% when embryos were expelled from the straws after diluting the cryoprotectant in the straws, and that the survival of vitrified-warmed embryos were observed before transfer. In contrast, the pregnancy rate in the directly transfer group (DIR group) was 62.5% when embryos were transferred directly to recipients without expelling embryos from the straws. There were no differences among the pregnancy rates of the ISD group, the DIR group and the non-vitrified biopsied embryos (NV group) (56.3%). These results suggest that it was possible to warm the vitrified-biopsied bovine embryos on farms and to transfer them immediately to recipients, yielding a practical pregnancy rate. © 2012 Japanese Society of Mammalian Ova Research.


Uetake K.,Azabu University | Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Tanaka T.,Azabu University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2014

We investigated the relationship of the stress levels of the dam before and after delivery to that of her offspring soon after birth. Eight pregnant cows were penned 7 days before calving. Blood was taken from the jugular vein of cows at -7, 1, 2 and 3 days from calving. Blood was also taken from newborn calves at 6h and 1 and 2 days after birth. Concentrations of cortisol and immunoglobulin G in blood and colostrum were examined. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that the higher the plasma cortisol concentration of a cow before calving, the higher that of its calf after birth (all P<0.01). In addition, path analysis demonstrated that the direct effect of the plasma cortisol concentration of the dam before calving on the plasma cortisol concentration of her calf after birth was 0.971 (P<0.01). However, the colostrum cortisol concentration correlated with neither plasma cortisol concentrations of cows before calving nor that of calves after birth. Unlike cortisol, a clear correlation of immunoglobulin G concentrations in plasma and colostrum was not observed between cows and calves. The results indicate stress is transferred from a cow to her newborn calf not by way of the colostrum but through the placenta. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Nomura K.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Uekusa H.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Kita N.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

The ability of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup II strain CMV-KT to suppress RNA silencing via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) was determined using Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV)-resistant transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (TuR-At) carrying TuMV coat protein (CP) transgenes. CMV-KT induced only slight growth retardation in TuR-At plants, but no dwarf or mosaic symptoms, while subgroup I strain Y (CMV-Y) caused severe symptoms. Expression of the RNA-silenced TuMV-CP transgene resumed and produced TuMV-CP in either CMV-KT- or CMV-Y-infected TuR-At plants, indicating that the RNA silencing of the TuMV-CP gene was suppressed. Challenge inoculation experiments revealed that RNA silencing of the TuMV-CP transgene by CMV-KT infection is suppressed mostly in young developing leaves, but not in mature leaves, of TuR-At plants. These results demonstrated that transgene-derived virus resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants can be compromised by even a mild strain of CMV infection. © 2014, The Author(s).


The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

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