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Tokiwa T.,Azabu University | Tokiwa T.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Kadekaru S.,Azabu University | Ito M.,Nagasaki Biopark | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2015

In February 2014, wild American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles from an artificial pond in the Kyusyu region, Japan, presented with coelomic and subcutaneous edema and erythema within the skin. A pathological examination of 57 tadpoles of American bullfrogs in the region was conducted to evaluate the disease. Crystal deposition of varying degrees was found in the kidneys of 35 tadpoles (61.4%). The crystals were transparent, pleomorphic in shape, highly birefringent in polarized light, and arranged in a radial pattern within the renal tubular lumen. Using Alizarin Red S stain and liquid chromatography, these crystals were identified as calcium oxalate. Severe coelomic and subcutaneous edema was observed in 7 of these 35 tadpoles (20.0%). Ammonia levels in coelomic fluid were extremely elevated (>1000 μg dl-1) in 4 tadpoles examined. These findings suggest that oxalate deposition in kidneys causes metabolic disorder with renal nephropathy. The source of the oxalate could not be determined; however, the presence of calcium oxalates in pond sediments, as revealed by liquid chromatography, suggested that the deposition was most likely due to ingestion of oxalate materials from the environment. This is the first report of oxalate nephropathy in free-living amphibians. © Inter-Research 2015.

Wada S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Wada S.,Agro Kanesho Co. | Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Takada A.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2011

The effects of the non-fumigant nematicide imicyafos on soil nematode community structure and damage to radish caused by Pratylenchus penetrans were evaluated in two field experiments in consecutive years (2007 and 2008). Nematode densities in soil at 0-10 cm (the depth of nematicide incorporation) and 10 - 30 cm were measured. The application of imicyafos had a significant impact on the density of P. penetrans at 0-10 cm but had no effect on free-living nematode density. PCR-DGGE analysis conducted using extracted nematodes showed that the nematode community structure 12 d after application in 2007 was altered by the application of imicyafos at the 0-10 cm depth, but not at 10-30 cm. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the nematode community at harvest (89 and 91 d after application) between the control and imicyafos treatments in both depths and both years. In both years, the damage to radish caused by P. penetrans was markedly suppressed by the nematicide. Overall, the nematicide imicyafos decreased populations of P. penetrans in soil and thereby decreased damage to radish, while having little impact on the soil nematode community. © The Society of Nematologists 2011.

Ichimura K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ono H.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Soga A.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Shimizu-Yumoto H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 3 more authors.
Horticulture Journal | Year: 2016

An unidentified compound was detected in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L. ʻDianaʼ) petals by HPLC analysis using a cation-exchange column for soluble carbohydrate analysis. This compound was identified as 2-cyanoethyl-isoxazolin-5-one (2-CEIX) using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and CI-MS and ESIMS. 2-CEIX was detected in the petals, leaves and stem. Amino acid and other nitrogenous compound contents in these organs were compared with 2-CEIX. The content of asparagine was highest, followed by 2-CEIX in the petals, and 2-CEIX was highest among nitrogenous compounds in the stem and leaves. The 2-CEIX content in the petal decreased during flower opening, but those in the petals and the other floral parts increased during senescence regardless of sucrose treatment. These trends differed from those of monosaccharides, sucrose and cyclitols. Thus, the role of 2-CEIX appears to differ from those of soluble carbohydrates. 2-CEIX was not detected in phloem and xylem saps. The results suggest that 2-CEIX is a major nitrogenous compound of low molecular weight and is likely to be produced in situ in various organs in sweet pea. © 2016 The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (JSHS), All rights reserved.

Uetake K.,Azabu University | Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Tanaka T.,Azabu University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2014

We investigated the relationship of the stress levels of the dam before and after delivery to that of her offspring soon after birth. Eight pregnant cows were penned 7 days before calving. Blood was taken from the jugular vein of cows at -7, 1, 2 and 3 days from calving. Blood was also taken from newborn calves at 6h and 1 and 2 days after birth. Concentrations of cortisol and immunoglobulin G in blood and colostrum were examined. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that the higher the plasma cortisol concentration of a cow before calving, the higher that of its calf after birth (all P<0.01). In addition, path analysis demonstrated that the direct effect of the plasma cortisol concentration of the dam before calving on the plasma cortisol concentration of her calf after birth was 0.971 (P<0.01). However, the colostrum cortisol concentration correlated with neither plasma cortisol concentrations of cows before calving nor that of calves after birth. Unlike cortisol, a clear correlation of immunoglobulin G concentrations in plasma and colostrum was not observed between cows and calves. The results indicate stress is transferred from a cow to her newborn calf not by way of the colostrum but through the placenta. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Sato E.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Okumura I.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center | Kokatsu Y.,Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center
Nematology | Year: 2013

The density of Pratylenchus penetrans in soil is known to be a major determinant in the severity of damage to Japanese radish, but soil chemical and microbial properties may also affect the severity. This study investigated the relationships between damage and the density of P. penetrans, soil chemical properties, such as pH (H2O), EC, available phosphate, NO3'N, NH4'N, total carbon and nitrogen, and microbial properties, such as microbial biomass and fungal and bacterial community structures, in 48 different plots in a field for 2 years. The density of P. penetrans estimated with real-time PCR was most significantly correlated with the damage to radish in both 2010 and 2011. The damage to radish caused by P. penetrans and the nematode density were negatively correlated with total carbon in soil in both years, suggesting that soil management leading to increased soil C could decrease the density of P. penetrans and hence the damage. Multiple regression models including the density of P. penetrans and the soil properties suggested that damage to radish was predictable with a higher probability for some of the soil chemical properties, such as total C and N, and the density of P. penetrans. The community structures of soil fungi and Pseudomonas spp. on the radish surface were different depending on the levels of damage to radish and the densities of P. penetrans. The results suggested that the damage to radish and the density of P. penetrans might be affected by the soil microbial community structure. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2013.

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