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Simonetti E.,Kamut Enterprises of Europe Bvba | Cartaud G.,Kamut Enterprises of Europe Bvba | Quinn R.M.,Kamut International | Marotti I.,University of Bologna | Dinelli G.,University of Bologna
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2015

In recent years, the use of glyphosate has dramatically increased worldwide, and there is growing concern about contamination of organic products caused by its heavy use on neighboring fields. Glyphosate is found as a residue not only in soil, plants, and groundwater but also in humans and animals. Considering the controversy on glyphosate maximum residue level in foodstuff and the difficulties in its analytical determination, the main purpose of the present paper was to investigate the competence and accuracy of 13 accredited European laboratories in determining glyphosate in wheat flour at a level close to their reporting limit of 10 μg/kg. According to the results of this performance assessment, the laboratories were not able to quantify glyphosate at trace levels. Therefore, their specified reporting limits of 10 μg/kg were not supported by their results, and a reporting limit of around 50 μg/kg of glyphosate in flour seems to be more appropriate to guarantee reliable and robust results. The widespread use of glyphosate and its harmfulness to humans make its detection at trace levels a primary goal for analytical laboratories. This is achievable through the improvement of QA and/or the optimization of the method of analysis used for glyphosate detection.


Dinelli G.,University of Bologna | Bregola V.,University of Bologna | Bosi S.,University of Bologna | Fiori J.,University of Bologna | And 9 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


di Silvestro R.,University of Bologna | di Loreto A.,University of Bologna | Marotti I.,University of Bologna | Bosi S.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In the perspective of cereal-based functional food development, the research compared stone watermill and stone mill which differed in the heating generated during grinding (30 and 60 °C) and the effects of storage on the preservation of phytochemicals. After 6-month storage of flour, a decrease in soluble dietary fibre (loss of 1.9-2.5 g 100 g-1) and bound polyphenols (loss of 6.2-8.5%) was observed, while other wheat grain components remained unvaried. Comparing the milling techniques, stoneground wheat grains (60 °C) showed the highest amylose (34.7-36.9% of total starch) and resistant starch amounts (0.85-1.16% of total starch), which could be of interest for lowering Glycaemic Index. Stoneground KAMUT® starch had higher tendency to be converted into resistant starch and it also showed the higher degree of starch damage, as compared to the durum wheat variety Claudio. The study provided suggestions for modulating the production chain with the aim of supplying added value to wheat-based products. © 2014 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Marotti I.,University of Bologna | Bregola V.,University of Bologna | Aloisio I.,University of Bologna | Di Gioia D.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: Wheat grains are a rich source of dietary fibres, particularly in the western human diet. Many of the health effects attributed to dietary fibres are believed to be related to their microbial fermentation in the gut. This study evaluated the ability of two potentially probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum L12 and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum B7003, to ferment soluble dietary fibres (SDFs) from modern and ancient durum-type wheat grains. Results: Fibre microbial utilisation was highly variable and dependent on the strain. SDFs from the varieties Svevo and Solex supported the growth of L. plantarum L12 the best, whereas those from the varieties Anco Marzio, Solex and Kamut ® Khorasan were good carbohydrate substrates for B. pseudocatenulatum B7003. The highest prebiotic activity scores (describing the extent to which prebiotics support selective growth of probiotics) for B7003 were obtained with SDFs from the varieties Solex (0.57), Kamut ® Khorasan (0.56) and Iride (0.55), whereas for L12 the highest scores were achieved with the varieties Orobel (0.63), Kamut ® Khorasan (0.56) and Solex (0.53). Conclusion: The present study has identified some SDFs from durum-type wheat grains as suitable prebiotic substrates for the selective proliferation of B. pseudocatenulatum B7003 and L. plantarum L12 in vitro. The results provide the basis for the potential utilisation of wheat-based prebiotics as a component of synbiotic formulations. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

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