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Kampong Cham, Cambodia

Devignot S.,French Army Biomedical Research Institute Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Sapet C.,French Army Biomedical Research Institute Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Duong V.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Bergon A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Deciphering host responses contributing to dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the life-threatening form of acute viral dengue infections, is required to improve both the differential prognosis and the treatments provided to DSS patients, a challenge for clinicians. Methodology/Principal Findings: Based on a prospective study, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of whole blood cells from 48 matched Cambodian children: 19 progressed to DSS while 16 and 13 presented respectively classical dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever grades I/II (DHF). Using multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and adjustment of p-values to control the False Discovery Rate (FDR<10%), we identified a signature of 2959 genes differentiating DSS patients from both DF and DHF, and showed a strong association of this DSS-gene signature with the dengue disease phenotype. Using a combined approach to analyse the molecular patterns associated with the DSS-gene signature, we provide an integrative overview of the transcriptional responses altered in DSS children. In particular, we show that the transcriptome of DSS children blood cells is characterized by a decreased abundance of transcripts related to T and NK lymphocyte responses and by an increased abundance of anti-inflammatory and repair/remodeling transcripts. We also show that unexpected pro-inflammatory gene patterns at the interface between innate immunity, inflammation and host lipid metabolism, known to play pathogenic roles in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with systemic vascular dysfunction, are transcriptionnally active in the blood cells of DSS children. Conclusions/Significance: We provide a global while non exhaustive overview of the molecular mechanisms altered in of DSS children and suggest how they may interact to lead to final vascular homeostasis breakdown. We suggest that some mechanisms identified should be considered putative therapeutic targets or biomarkers of progression to DSS. © 2010 Devignot et al. Source

Vong S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Guillard B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Borand L.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Rammaert B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 9 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ≥5 year -old persons in the tropics.Methods: We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI.Results: Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ≥5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) independent of age and time-to-admission.Conclusions: High frequency of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae infections support the need for introduction of the respective vaccines in the national immunization program. Tuberculosis was frequent in patients with acute pneumonia, requiring further investigation. The relationship between respiratory viruses and wheezing merits further studies. © 2013 Vong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Rammaert B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Rammaert B.,University of Paris Descartes | Goyet S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Tarantola A.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 10 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Background Little is known about post-infectious pulmonary sequelae in countries like Cambodia where tuberculosis is hyper-endemic and childhood pulmonary infections are highly frequent. We describe the characteristics of hospitalized Cambodian patients presenting with community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) on post-infectious pulmonary sequelae (ALRIPS). Methods Between 2007 and 2010, inpatients ≥15 years with ALRI were prospectively recruited. Clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Chest radiographs were re-interpreted by experts to compare patients with ALRIPS, on previously healthy lungs (ALRIHL) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Patients without chest radiograph abnormality or with abnormality suggestive as other chronic respiratory diseases were excluded from this analysis. Results Among the 2351 inpatients with community-acquired ALRI, 1800 were eligible: 426 (18%) ALRIPS, 878 (37%) ALRIHL and 496 (21%) TB. ALRIPS patients had less frequent fever than other ALRI (p < 0.001) and more productive cough than ALRIHL (p < 0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounted for 83% of ALRIPS group positive cultures. H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa were significantly associated with ALRIPS compared with ALRIHL. Treatment was appropriate in 58% of ALRIPS patients. Finally, 79% of ALRIPS were not recognized by local clinicians. In-hospital mortality was low (1%) but probably underestimated in the ALRIPS group. Conclusion ALRIPS remains often misdiagnosed as TB with inappropriate treatment in low-income countries. Better-targeted training programs would help reduce the morbidity burden and financial costs. Source

Rammaert B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Goyet S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Beaute J.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Hem S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients.Methods: Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection.Results: From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI.Conclusions: KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more frequently found in women, and should be considered in diabetic patients. The extremely high frequency of ESBL-producing strains in the study is alarming in the context of uncontrolled antibiotic consumption and in absence of microbiology capacity in most public-sector hospitals. © 2011 Rammaert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Buchy P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Conan A.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ong S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ali R.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Objective: Dengue has been reportable in Cambodia since 1980. Virological surveillance began in 2000 and sentinel surveillance was established at six hospitals in 2001. Currently, national surveillance comprises passive and active data collection and reporting on hospitalized children aged 0-15years. This report summarizes surveillance data collected since 1980. Methods: Crude data for 1980-2001 are presented, while data from 2002-2008 are used to describe disease trends and the effect of vector control interventions. Trends in dengue incidence were analysed using the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression model for time series. Findings: During 1980-2001, epidemics occurred in cycles of 3-4years, with the cycles subsequently becoming less prominent. For 2002-2008 data, linear regression analysis detected no significant trend in the annual reported age-adjusted incidence of dengue (incidence range: 0.7-3.0 per 1000 population). The incidence declined in 2.7% of the 185 districts studied, was unchanged in 86.2% and increased in 9.6%. The age-specific incidence was highest in infants aged < 1year and children aged 4-6years. The incidence was higher during rainy seasons. All four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes were permanently in circulation, though the predominant serotype has alternated between DENV-3 and DENV-2 since 2000. Although larvicide has been distributed in 94 districts since 2002, logistic regression analysis showed no association between the intervention and dengue incidence. Conclusion: The dengue burden remained high among young children in Cambodia, which reflects intense transmission. The national vector control programme appeared to have little impact on disease incidence. Source

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