Kampong Cham, Cambodia
Kampong Cham, Cambodia

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Rammaert B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Goyet S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Beaute J.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Hem S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients.Methods: Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection.Results: From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI.Conclusions: KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more frequently found in women, and should be considered in diabetic patients. The extremely high frequency of ESBL-producing strains in the study is alarming in the context of uncontrolled antibiotic consumption and in absence of microbiology capacity in most public-sector hospitals. © 2011 Rammaert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Andries A.-C.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Duong V.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ong S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Sroin K.K.,Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Dengue diagnosis is complex and until recently only specialized laboratories were able to definitively confirm dengue infection. Rapid tests are now available commercially making biological diagnosis possible in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combined dengue rapid test for the detection of NS1 and IgM/IgG antibodies. The evaluation was made prospectively in the field conditions and included the study of the impact of its use as a point-of-care test for case management as well as retrospectively against a panel of well-characterized samples in a reference laboratory. Methodology/Principal Findings: During the prospective study, 157 patients hospitalized for a suspicion of dengue were enrolled. In the hospital laboratories, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the NS1/IgM/IgG combination tests were 85.7%, 83.9%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively, whereas they were 94,4%, 90.0%, 97.5% and 77.1% respectively in the national reference laboratory at Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. These results demonstrate that optimal performances require adequate training and quality assurance. The retrospective study showed that the sensitivity of the combined kit did not vary significantly between the serotypes and was not affected by the immune status or by the interval of time between onset of fever and sample collection. The analysis of the medical records indicates that the physicians did not take into consideration the results obtained with the rapid test including for care management and use of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: In the context of our prospective field study, we demonstrated that if the SD Bioline Dengue Duo kit is correctly used, a positive result highly suggests a dengue case but a negative result doesn't rule out a dengue infection. Nevertheless, Cambodian pediatricians in their daily practice relied on their clinical diagnosis and thus the false negative results obtained did not directly impact on the clinical management. © 2012 Andries et al.

Buchy P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Conan A.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ong S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ali R.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Objective: Dengue has been reportable in Cambodia since 1980. Virological surveillance began in 2000 and sentinel surveillance was established at six hospitals in 2001. Currently, national surveillance comprises passive and active data collection and reporting on hospitalized children aged 0-15years. This report summarizes surveillance data collected since 1980. Methods: Crude data for 1980-2001 are presented, while data from 2002-2008 are used to describe disease trends and the effect of vector control interventions. Trends in dengue incidence were analysed using the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression model for time series. Findings: During 1980-2001, epidemics occurred in cycles of 3-4years, with the cycles subsequently becoming less prominent. For 2002-2008 data, linear regression analysis detected no significant trend in the annual reported age-adjusted incidence of dengue (incidence range: 0.7-3.0 per 1000 population). The incidence declined in 2.7% of the 185 districts studied, was unchanged in 86.2% and increased in 9.6%. The age-specific incidence was highest in infants aged < 1year and children aged 4-6years. The incidence was higher during rainy seasons. All four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes were permanently in circulation, though the predominant serotype has alternated between DENV-3 and DENV-2 since 2000. Although larvicide has been distributed in 94 districts since 2002, logistic regression analysis showed no association between the intervention and dengue incidence. Conclusion: The dengue burden remained high among young children in Cambodia, which reflects intense transmission. The national vector control programme appeared to have little impact on disease incidence.

PubMed | Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital and Nagoya University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nagoya journal of medical science | Year: 2016

Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia.

Duong V.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ly S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Try P.,Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital | Tuiskunen A.,Swedish Center for Infectious Disease Control | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Detection of dengue NS1 antigen in acute infection has been proposed for early diagnosis of dengue disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and virological factors influencing the performance of the Platelia NS1 Ag kit (BioRad) and to assess the potential use of NS1 antigen and dengue viral loads as markers of dengue disease severity. Methodology/Principal Findings: Blood specimens were collected from patients hospitalized at the Kampong Cham hospital during the 2006 and 2007 dengue epidemics in Cambodia. Dengue infection was confirmed in 243/339 symptomatic patients and in 17 asymptomatic individuals out of 214 household members tested. Overall sensitivity and specificity of Platelia NS1 Ag kit were 57.5% and 100% respectively. NS1 Ag assay combined with IgM antibody capture ELISA significantly increased the sensitivity for dengue diagnosis. NS1 Ag positivity rate was found significantly higher in DF than in DHF/DSS, in primary than in secondary infections, in patients with a high viremia (>5 log/mL) and in patients infected with DENV-1. In asymptomatic individuals, the NS1 Ag capture sensitivity tends to be lower than that in symptomatic patients. Milder disease severity was observed independently in patients with RNA copy number >5 log10 cDNA equivalents/mL or in high level of NS1 antigen ratio or in DENV-1 infection. Conclusions: Overall sensitivity of NS1 Ag detection kit varied widely across the various forms of dengue infection or disease. Sensitivity was highest in patients sampled during the first 3 days after onset of fever, in patients with primary infection, DENV-1 infection, with high level of viremia and in DF rather than DHF/DSS. In asymptomatic patients, RT-PCR assay has proved to be more sensitive than NS1 antigen detection. The NS1 antigen level correlated significantly with viremia and a low NS1 antigen ratio was associated with more severe disease. © 2011 Duong et al.

Guerrier G.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Goyet S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Chheng E.T.,National Pediatric Hospital | Rammaert B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 11 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Viruses are detected in most hospitalized children admitted for acute respiratory infections. Etiologic understanding is needed to improve clinical management and prevention, particularly in resource-limited tropical countries. Methods: A 3-year prospective descriptive study was conducted among Cambodian children admitted to 2 provincial hospitals for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Molecular detection for 18 viral pathogens using multiplex polymerase chain reaction/reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions was performed. Results: We enrolled 1006 children less than 5 years of age of whom 423 (42%), 428 (42%) and 155 (16%) had pneumonia, bronchiolitis and unclassified lower respiratory tract infections, respectively. Of the 551 (55%) with documented viral infection, a single virus was detected in 491 (89%), including rhinovirus (n = 169; 34%), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 167; 34%), parainfluenza virus (n = 40; 8%), human metapneumovirus (n = 39; 8%), influenza virus (n = 31; 6%), bocavirus (n = 16; 3%), adenovirus (n = 15; 3%), coronavirus (n = 9; 2%) and enterovirus (n = 5; 1%). Coinfections with multiple viruses were detected in 6% (2 viruses detected in 59 cases; 3 viruses detected in 1 case). Conclusion: Similar to other tropical countries, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the principal viral pathogens detected among children hospitalized for lower tract respiratory infection in Cambodia. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Vong S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Guillard B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Borand L.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Rammaert B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 9 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ≥5 year -old persons in the tropics.Methods: We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI.Results: Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ≥5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) independent of age and time-to-admission.Conclusions: High frequency of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae infections support the need for introduction of the respective vaccines in the national immunization program. Tuberculosis was frequent in patients with acute pneumonia, requiring further investigation. The relationship between respiratory viruses and wheezing merits further studies. © 2013 Vong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Devignot S.,French Army Biomedical Research Institute Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Sapet C.,French Army Biomedical Research Institute Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Duong V.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Bergon A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Deciphering host responses contributing to dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the life-threatening form of acute viral dengue infections, is required to improve both the differential prognosis and the treatments provided to DSS patients, a challenge for clinicians. Methodology/Principal Findings: Based on a prospective study, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of whole blood cells from 48 matched Cambodian children: 19 progressed to DSS while 16 and 13 presented respectively classical dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever grades I/II (DHF). Using multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and adjustment of p-values to control the False Discovery Rate (FDR<10%), we identified a signature of 2959 genes differentiating DSS patients from both DF and DHF, and showed a strong association of this DSS-gene signature with the dengue disease phenotype. Using a combined approach to analyse the molecular patterns associated with the DSS-gene signature, we provide an integrative overview of the transcriptional responses altered in DSS children. In particular, we show that the transcriptome of DSS children blood cells is characterized by a decreased abundance of transcripts related to T and NK lymphocyte responses and by an increased abundance of anti-inflammatory and repair/remodeling transcripts. We also show that unexpected pro-inflammatory gene patterns at the interface between innate immunity, inflammation and host lipid metabolism, known to play pathogenic roles in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with systemic vascular dysfunction, are transcriptionnally active in the blood cells of DSS children. Conclusions/Significance: We provide a global while non exhaustive overview of the molecular mechanisms altered in of DSS children and suggest how they may interact to lead to final vascular homeostasis breakdown. We suggest that some mechanisms identified should be considered putative therapeutic targets or biomarkers of progression to DSS. © 2010 Devignot et al.

PubMed | Lund University, Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, Battambang Provincial Hospital and The University of Cambodia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2015

To demonstrate the feasibility of implementing evidence-based continuing medical education (CME) to improve key skills among maternity staff in Cambodia.A skills-based CME program was implemented in 33 Cambodian hospitals. Each clinical skills practice (CSP) module consisted of a 1-day practice session, focusing on three maternal and newborn interventions, followed by support visits to participating hospitals. Skills were assessed at 27 intervention hospitals and five control hospitals 7-11 months after the practice sessions through observation of neonatal resuscitation, magnesium sulfate dilution, and aortic compression simulations.A total of 559 healthcare workers attended at least one CSP practice session. The skills assessment included 47 doctors and 210 midwives. Hospital staff who participated in CSP performed significantly better than did those from control hospitals on neonatal resuscitation (mean score 31.22 vs 17.00; P<0.001), magnesium sulfate dilution (mean score 11.01 vs 8.47; P<0.001), and aortic compression (mean score 13.87 vs 4.33; P<0.001). CSP participants were also significantly more likely to score higher than the 70% cutoff for neonatal resuscitation and magnesium sulfate dilution than were those from control hospitals, after adjustment for hospital level and profession (P0.05).Key clinical skills in low-resource settings can be improved by implementing CME using simulations and supportive follow-up.

PubMed | Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Stanford University, University of Washington and Diagnostic Microbiology Development Program
Type: | Journal: F1000Research | Year: 2015

Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdowns medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

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