Kampinos National Park

Izabelin, Poland

Kampinos National Park

Izabelin, Poland
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Otreba A.,Kampinos National Park | Marciszewska K.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Janik D.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A | Year: 2017

Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%). There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees) and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees). © 2017 by the Committee on Forestry Sciences and Wood Technology of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Forest Research Institute in Sȩkocin Stary.

Guerrero I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Morales M.B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Onate J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Aavik T.,University of Tartu | And 20 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011

In eight European study sites (in Spain, Ireland, Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Estonia and Sweden), abundance of breeding farmland bird territories was obtained from 500 × 500 m survey plots (30 per area, N = 240) using the mapping method. Two analyses were performed: (I) a Canonical Correspondence Analysis of species abundance in relation to geographical location and variables measuring agricultural intensification at field and farm level to identify significant intensification variables and to estimate the fractions of total variance in bird abundance explained by geography and agricultural intensification; (II) several taxonomic and functional community indices were built and analysed using GLM in relation to the intensification variables found significant in the CCA. The geographical location of study sites alone explains nearly one fifth (19. 5%) of total variation in species abundance. The fraction of variance explained by agricultural intensification alone is much smaller (4. 3%), although significant. The intersection explains nearly two fifths (37. 8%) of variance in species abundance. Community indices are negatively affected by correlates of intensification like farm size and yield, whereas correlates of habitat availability and quality have positive effects on taxonomic and functional diversity of assemblages. Most of the purely geographical variation in farmland bird assemblage composition is associated to Mediterranean steppe species, reflecting the bio-geographical singularity of that assemblage and reinforcing the need to preserve this community. Taxonomic and functional diversity of farmland bird communities are negatively affected by agricultural intensification and positively affected by increasing farmland habitat availability and quality. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Swislocka M.,University of Bialystok | Czajkowska M.,University of Bialystok | Duda N.,University of Bialystok | Danylow J.,Kampinos National Park | And 2 more authors.
Acta Theriologica | Year: 2013

In recent years, human activity directly and indirectly influenced the demography of moose in Poland. The species was close to extinction, and only a few isolated populations survived after the Second World War; then, unprecedented demographic and spatial expansions had occurred, possibly generating a very complex pattern of population genetic structure at the present-day margins of the species range in Poland. Over 370 moose from seven populations were collected from Poland, and partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-cr; 607 bp) were obtained. In addition, the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) and Y-chromosome markers (1,982 bp in total) were studied in a chosen set of individuals. Twelve mtDNA haplotypes that all belonged to the European moose phylogroup were recorded. They could be divided into two distinct clades: Central Europe and the Ural Mountains. The first clade consists of three distinct groups/branches: Biebrza, Polesie, and Fennoscandia. The Biebrza group has experienced spatial and demographic expansion in the recent past. Average genetic differentiation among moose populations in Poland at mtDNA-cr was great and significant (Φ ST = 0.407, p < 0.001). Using mtDNA-cr data, four separate groups of population were recognized using spatial analysis of molecular variance and principal coordinate analysis, including a relict population in Biebrza National Park, a reintroduced Kampinos National Park population, as well as populations that were descendants of moose that colonized Poland from the east (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine) and the north (former East Prussia). Among all the sequenced Y-chromosome markers, polymorphisms were found in the DBY14 marker in three populations only; four haplotypes were recorded in total. No significant differentiation was detected for this Y-linked marker among moose populations in Poland. Our mtDNA study revealed that a variety of different factors-bottleneck, the presence of relict, autochthonous populations, translocations, limited female dispersal, and the colonization from the east and north-are responsible for the observed complex pattern of population genetic structure after demographic and spatial expansion of moose in Poland. © 2013 The Author(s).

Guerrero I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Morales M.B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Onate J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Geiger F.,Wageningen University | And 16 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

European farmland bird populations have decreased dramatically in recent decades and agricultural intensification has been identified as the main cause contributing to these declines. Identifying which specific intensification pressures are driving those population trends seems vital for bird conservation in European farmland.We investigated the response of ground-nesting farmland birds to the multivariate process of agricultural intensification in six European countries covering a bio-geographical and intensification gradient. Supported by PCA analysis, two groups of factors, related to field management and landscape modification, were considered, seeking to discriminate the relative importance of the effects of these main intensification components.Variance partition analysis showed that landscape factors accounted for most of the variation of ground-nesting farmland bird individual and breeding pair densities, as well as Skylark (i.e. our single model species) individual densities. In the case of Skylark breeders, field factors were found to be more important to explain their density. Our results suggest that in general farmland bird densities as well as Skylark densities are higher in simple landscapes dominated by agriculture, but with smaller fields and more different crops on the farms. In addition, high yields were negatively related to bird densities.We conclude that while management actions aimed at farmland bird conservation taken at landscape level may exert a strong positive effect on overall bird densities, those taken at field level are also relevant, particularly for breeders and, therefore, may potentially influence the persistence of these species' populations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Geiger F.,Wageningen University | de Snoo G.R.,Wageningen University | de Snoo G.R.,Leiden University | Berendse F.,Wageningen University | And 17 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

This study examined the effects of agricultural intensity, various farming practices, landscape composition and vegetation cover on the abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds, assessed simultaneously across seven European regions. The abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds were negatively affected by agricultural intensity. The effects of yield and farm type were interlinked. Of the 10 farming practices assessed, mechanical weeding and the amount of organic fertilizer applied negatively affected farmland birds, presumably due to reduced food availability on arable fields. Positive effects of organic farming on farmland birds proved to be limited to simplified landscapes. More farmland birds were observed in areas with more stubble, pasture and green manure crops. Species richness was higher in areas with more pasture. The results of this study show that farm management, vegetation cover and landscape composition all influence wintering farmland birds. Heterogeneous landscapes comprising arable crops as well as grasslands support most species of farmland birds in winter. The effectiveness of organic farming and agri-environment schemes depends on landscape composition. Therefore, different agri-environment schemes should be designed for different landscape types. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lesinski G.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Sikora A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Olszewski A.,Kampinos National Park
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2011

A year-round study was conducted on a 16.6-km road section crossing Kampinos National Park near Warsaw (central Poland). We found 61 road-killed bats belonging to seven species. The most abundant were: Nyctalus noctula, Plecotus auritus, and Barbastella barbastellus. Bats were found between the middle of April and the end of October with peaks in July/August and October. The density of bat casualties differed slightly in various habitats surrounding the road-lower values than expected were found only for windbreaks and bushes. The prediction that low-flying species are killed more frequently was not confirmed-the most abundant N. noctula usually flies at heights over 10 m above the ground. N. noctula, Myotis nattereri, and Pipistrellus nathusii were killed more frequently while Eptesicus serotinus less frequently than could be expected from the frequency with which they were captured in mist-nets on forest lanes. © 2010 The Author(s).

Lesinski G.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Olszewski A.,Kampinos National Park | Popczyk B.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Polish Journal of Ecology | Year: 2011

We hypothesized that the flight activity of bats in forests is higher in parts closer to edges due to the presence of species roosting in trees and foraging mostly outside as well as those coming to forage from outside. The aim of our study was to test this expectation using bat netting on roads in a forest belt 4-5 km wide in Kampinos National Park near Warsaw (central Poland). Tree stands were mostly coniferous. Ten full-night study sessions were done between the end of July and the beginning of September in the years 2007-2009. During each session, bats were netted at two sites situated in two zones designated as "edge" (100-500 m from forest edge) and "interior" (1750-2250 m from forest edge). The study revealed twelve species, among which Eptesicus serotinus (Schreber), Nyctalus noctula (Schreber) and Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber) were by far most abundant. Total bat abundance recorded at ten pairs of netting sites differed significantly between the edge zone (ca. 2.5 times higher numbers) and the interior zone. Among individual species, a statistically important difference was shown only for Plecotus auritus (L.), which was more abundant close to the forest edge, though a similar tendency was noted in other species, mostly E. serotinus. The frequency of each species in the bat assemblage as well as species diversity of bats flying along forest roads did not differ between the two zones.

Borowski Z.,Forest Research Institute | Owadowska E.,Kampinos National Park
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2010

There are numerous studies showing that predation risk may change different aspects of the behavior of prey, such as habitat use, activity pattern, and foraging. Prey should exhibit the strongest antipredatory response against their most deadly predator. Small mustelids are considered the most important mammalian predators of voles. Nevertheless, there is no general agreement as to whether strong antipredatory reactions exist in natural freeliving populations of voles. Here, we studied the field vole Microtus agrestis spatial reaction to high predation risk from small mustelids in the breeding (August) and nonbreeding (October) seasons under natural conditions. Voles were exposed to a caged weasel (Mustela nivalis) and a stoat (Mustela erminea), as well as to the odors of these predators. The reactions of 30 field voles were monitored with radiotelemetry. The field voles were found to display antipredator reactions that varied with season. In the breeding period, in response to predation risk, voles reduced locomotory activity and daily-range size, whereas in the nonbreeding period they did not. Changes in home range position were similar for control and treatment voles, in both the breeding and nonbreeding periods. The results indicate that mustelid predators modify the spatial behavior of small rodents in natural conditions depending on season. This might be a reflection of differences in state-dependent responses to predation from sexually active or inactive individuals. This suggests that the basic antipredatory reaction of voles under high predation risk from small mustelids limits their locomotory activity. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

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