Katushemererwe F.,Kampala University |
Nerbonne J.,University of Groningen
Computer Assisted Language Learning | Year: 2015
This study presents the results from a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system of Runyakitara (RU_CALL). The major objective was to provide an electronic language learning environment that can enable learners with mother tongue deficiencies to enhance their knowledge of grammar and acquire writing skills in Runyakitara. The system currently focuses on nouns and employs natural language processing in order to generate a large base of exercise material without extensive tuning by teachers. Language learners used the system over 10 sessions and their improvements were charted. Besides this empirical evaluation, we also sought the opinions of Runyakitara experts about the system (as a judgmental evaluation). Results from the evaluation study indicate that RU_CALL has the ability to assess users’ knowledge of Runyakitara and to enhance grammar and writing skills in the language. This computational resource can be utilized by other interested learners of Runyakitara, and the idea can be extended to other indigenous languages with emigrant populations who wish to maintain their language skills. © 2015, © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Frenk J.,Harvard University |
Chen L.,China Medical Board |
Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University |
Cohen J.,George Washington University |
And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010
Background Activation of renal sympathetic nerves is key to pathogenesis of essential hypertension. We aimed to assess eff ectiveness and safety of catheter-based renal denervation for reduction of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Methods In this multicentre, prospective, randomised trial, patients who had a baseline systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or more (?150 mm Hg for patients with type 2 diabetes), despite taking three or more antihypertensive drugs, were randomly allocated in a one-to-one ratio to undergo renal denervation with previous treatment or to maintain previous treatment alone (control group) at 24 participating centres. Randomisation was done with sealed envelopes. Data analysers were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary eff ectiveness endpoint was change in seated offi ce-based measurement of systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Primary analysis included all patients remaining in follow-up at 6 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00888433. Findings 106 (56%) of 190 patients screened for eligibility were randomly allocated to renal denervation (n=52) or control (n=54) groups between June 9, 2009, and Jan 15, 2010. 49 (94%) of 52 patients who underwent renal denervation and 51 (94%) of 54 controls were assessed for the primary endpoint at 6 months. Offi ce-based blood pressure measurements in the renal denervation group reduced by 32/12 mm Hg (SD 23/11, baseline of 178/96 mm Hg, p<0?0001), whereas they did not diff er from baseline in the control group (change of 1/0 mm Hg [21/10], baseline of 178/97 mm Hg, p=0?77 systolic and p=0?83 diastolic). Between-group diff erences in blood pressure at 6 months were 33/11 mm Hg (p<0?0001). At 6 months, 41 (84%) of 49 patients who underwent renal denervation had a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more, compared with 18 (35%) of 51 controls (p<0?0001). We noted no serious procedure-related or device-related complications and occurrence of adverse events did not diff er between groups; one patient who had renal denervation had possible progression of an underlying atherosclerotic lesion, but required no treatment. Interpretation Catheter-based renal denervation can safely be used to substantially reduce blood pressure in treatmentresistant hypertensive patients. Funding Ardian.
Nosyk B.,University of British Columbia |
Audoin B.,International AIDS Society |
Beyrer C.,University of Baltimore |
Cahn P.,University of Buenos Aires |
And 10 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013
In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the ability of HAART to prevent HIV transmission. Early supportive evidence was derived from observational, ecological and population-based studies. More recently, a randomized clinical trial showed that immediate use of HAART led to a 96% decrease in HIV transmission events within HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples. However, the generalizability of the effect of HAART, and the population-level impact on HIV transmission continues to generate substantial debate. We, therefore, conducted a review of the evidence regarding the preventive effect of HAART on HIV transmission within the context of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality. Taken together, we find the accumulated evidence supporting HIV treatment as prevention meets each of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality. We conclude that the opportunity cost of inaction while waiting for additional evidence on the generalizability of effect in other risk groups is too high. Efforts should be redoubled to mobilize the financial capital and political will to optimize implementation of HIV Treatment as Prevention strategies on a wide scale. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Standley C.J.,Princeton University |
Mugisha L.,Kampala University |
Mugisha L.,Conservation and Ecosystem Health Alliance CEHA |
Dobson A.P.,Princeton University |
Stothard J.R.,Disease Control Strategy Group
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2012
Schistosomiasis is one of the world's most widely distributed and prevalent parasitic diseases. Less widely recognized is that some species of Schistosoma, including several that commonly affect humans, also cause disease in other mammalian species; in particular, infections in non-human primates are known. With interest increasing in emerging zoonotic diseases, the status of schistosomiasis as a zoonotic infection is in need of re-appraisal, especially in light of advances in application of molecular screening and epidemiological tools where newly reported infections raise general animal welfare and conservation concerns. Focusing on Africa, this review provides a summary of the occurrence of schistosomiasis in non-human primates and discusses new ways in which surveillance for schistosomiasis should be integrated into more effective conservation management and disease control strategies. Emphasis is on the more common forms of human schistosomiasis, their clinical manifestations and epidemiological significance in terms of infection reservoir potential. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Wilmshurst J.M.,University of Cape Town |
Kakooza-Mwesige A.,Kampala University |
Newton C.R.,Kenya Medical Research Institute |
Newton C.R.,University College London |
Newton C.R.,University of Oxford
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2014
Children with epilepsy who reside in the African continent are faced with some of the greatest challenges of receiving adequate care. The burden of disease is exacerbated by the high incidence of acquired causes and the large treatment gap. Skilled teams to identify and care for children with epilepsy are lacking. Many patients are managed through psychiatric services, thus potentially compounding the stigma associated with the condition. Little data exist to assess the true proportion of comorbidities suffered by children with epilepsy, the assumption is that this is high, further aggravated by delayed interventions and adverse responses to some of the more commonly used antiepileptic drugs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Haberer J.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Haberer J.E.,Harvard Initiative for Global Health |
Kiwanuka J.,Kampala University |
Nansera D.,Kampala University |
And 4 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2010
Frequent antiretroviral therapy adherence monitoring could detect incomplete adherence before viral rebound develops and thus potentially prevent treatment failure. Mobile phone technologies make frequent, brief adherence interviews possible in resource-limited settings; however, feasibility and acceptability are unknown. Interactive voice response (IVR) and short message service (SMS) text messaging were used to collect adherence data from 19 caregivers of HIV-infected children in Uganda. IVR calls or SMS quantifying missed doses were sent in the local language once weekly for 3-4 weeks. Qualitative interviews were conducted to assess participant impressions of the technologies. Participant interest and participation rates were high; however, weekly completion rates for adherence queries were low (0-33%), most commonly due to misunderstanding of personal identification numbers. Despite near ubiquity of mobile phone technology in resource-limited settings, individual level collection of healthcare data presents challenges. Further research is needed for effective training and incentive methods. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.
Foley S.F.,University of Mainz |
Link K.,University of Mainz |
Tiberindwa J.V.,Kampala University |
Barifaijo E.,Kampala University
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2012
Tertiary and later igneous activity is common on and around the Tanzanian craton, with primitive magma compositions ranging from kimberlites and varieties of picrites through nephelinites, basanites and alkali basalts. This review focuses on elucidating the conditions of origin of the melts, addressing the question of the state and involvement of the Tanzanian cratonic lithosphere in magma genesis. The Tanzanian craton is anomalous with a surface elevation of >1100. m reflecting buoyancy supported by a subcratonic plume whose effects are seen in the volcanics of both western and eastern rift branches. Magmatism on the craton and at its edge has high K/Na and primitive melts show fractionation dominated by olivine. Slightly further from the craton pyroxene fractionation dominates and K/Na ratios in the magmas are lower. Off-craton melts are nephelinites, basanites and alkali basalts with low K/Na. Potassium enrichment in the melts correlates with the occurrence of phlogopite in mantle-derived xenoliths, and also with carbonate in the magmas. This is attributed to melting at >140. km depths of mixed source regions containing phlogopite pyroxenite and peridotite, whereby the carbonate is derived from oxidation of diamonds concentrated near the base of the cratonic lithosphere. Mixed source regions are required by arrays of radiogenic isotopes such as Os and Sr in the volcanic rocks. The temporal progression of lamproites to phlogopite. +. carbonate-rich rocks to melilitites, nephelinites and alkali basalts seen during the erosion of the North Atlantic craton are seen around the Tanzanian craton as the coeval occurrence kimberlites, kamafugites and related rocks, nephelinites and alkali basalts showing spatial instead of temporal variation. This is due to the different stages of development of rifting around the craton: in northwestern Uganda and northern Tanzania, K-rich volcanism occurs at the craton edge, whereas nephelinites, basanites and alkali basalts occur where shallower level melting occurs in well-developed rifts. The presence of pyroxenite in the melt sources in the rifts is seen as high Ni in volcanics with intermediate Mg#, and melting of underplated alkali basaltic material may explain the production of voluminous flood phonolites in the eastern rift branch. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Baryamutuma R.,Kampala University |
Baingana F.,Wellcome Trust Research Fellow
African Health Sciences | Year: 2011
Background: Numbers of young people with perinatally acquired HIV is growing significantly. With antiretroviral drugs, children who get infected at birth with HIV have an opportunity to graduate into adolescence and adulthood. This achievement notwithstanding, new challenges have emerged in their care and support needs. The most dynamic being, their sexual and reproductive health needs and rights (SRHR). Objectives: This paper aimed at establishing the gaps at policy, program and health systems level s far as addressing sexual and reproductive health needs of young people who have lived with HIV since infancy is concerned. Methods: This paper is based on a desk review of existing literature on sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of young positives. Results: The results indicate young positives are sexually active and are engaging in risky sexual encounters. Yet, existing policies, programs and services are inadequate in responding to their sexual and reproductive health needs and rights. Conclusion: Against these findings, it is important, that policies specifically targeting this subgroup are formulated and to make sure that such policies result in programs and services that are youth friendly. It is also important that integration of Sexual Reproductive Health (SRH) and HIV services is prioritized.
Sitati F.C.,PCEA Kikuyu Hospital |
Naddumba E.,Mulago Hospital |
Beyeza T.,Kampala University
Tropical Doctor | Year: 2010
In developing countries, sciatic nerve injury following gluteal intramuscular injection is a persistent problem. A study over 6 months involving 133 children seen in Mulago hospital with acute flaccid paralysis revealed 124 (93%) children with injection-induced sciatic nerve injury. The identity of the drug in 79 cases (59.4%) was quinine. It is recommended that the gluteal region should not be used as an intramuscular injection site in children.
Green Jr. H.D.,RAND Corporation |
Atuyambe L.,Kampala University |
Ssali S.,Kampala University |
Ryan G.W.,RAND Corporation |
Wagner G.J.,RAND Corporation
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2011
The objective of this study was to describe the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and explore the implications social network characteristics might have for mobilizing PLHA as prevention agents. Thirty-nine PLHA attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda provided information on themselves and on 20 network members. Based on these data, descriptive statistics for social network composition and structure were calculated. Research questions relating these network characteristics to treatment-related variables such as time since diagnosis, ART status, and time on ART were investigated. Analyses reveal that, in general, network members know the PLHA's status, are trusted, provide advice and support, and are well-connected to each other. Network features (e.g., proportion of individuals who know the PLHA's status) are related to the previously mentioned treatment variables. Findings suggest that PLHA surround themselves with a social context that enables PLHA to feel fairly protected and supported if they choose to discuss HIV and prevention. With respect to treatment, those on ART may be better prepared to act as prevention advocates. © GovernmentEmployee: RAND Corporation 2010.