Nāgpur, India
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Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya
Rasayan Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

The Copolymer (p-HBSF) was synthesized by condensation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and semicarbazide with formaldehyde in the presence of 2M HCL as a catalyst at 126 ± 2° C for 5 hrs. with molar proportion of reactants. The synthesized copolymer resin has been characterized by different physico-chemical techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis of all copolymer resins in present study have been carried out by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis technique in which sample is subjected to condition of continuous increase in temperature at linear rate. Thermal study of the resins was carried out to determine their mode of decomposition and relative thermal stabilities. The copolymer (p-HBSF) was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition behavior of copolymer was studied by using TGA in static nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min. The advantage of Freeman-Carroll method is to calculate both the order of reaction (n) and energy of activation in one single stage by keeping heating rate constant. Thermal activation energy (Ea) calculated with above two mentioned methods are in close agreement. Freeman Carroll and Sharp-Wentworth methods were used to calculate the thermal activation energy (Ea), the order of reaction (n), entropy Change (AS), free energy change (AF), apperent entropy change (AS), and frequency factor (Z). The thermal activation energy determined with the help of these method was in good agreement with each other. © 2012 RASÄYAN. All rights reserved.


Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2012

The Copolymer (SATF) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid and thiosemicarbazide with formaldehyde in the presence of 2M HCL as a catalyst at 126 ± 2 °C for 5 hrs. with molar proportion of reactants. The copolymer (SATF) was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Visible 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition behavior of SATF copolymer was studied by using TGA in static nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min. Freeman Carroll and Sharp-Wentworth methods were used to calculate the thermal activation energy(Ea), the order of reaction(n), entropy Change (ΔS), free energy change (ΔF), apperent entropy change (ΔS), and frequency factor (Z). The order of decomposition reaction was found to be 0.9. The thermal activation energy determined with the help of these method was in good agreement with each other.


Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya | Mandavgade S.K.,Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering and Technology
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

The copolymer resin 4-HACF has been synthesized by the condensation of 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HA) and catechol (C) with formaldehyde (F) in 1:1:2 molar ratios in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. UV-Visible, IR and proton NMR spectral studies have been carried out to elucidate the structure of the resin. Electrical conductivity measurements have been carried out to ascertain the semiconducting nature of the copolymer resin. The electrical properties of 4-HACF copolymer were measured over a wide range of temperature (313-428K), activation energy of electrical conduction has been evaluated and plot of log α vs 1000/T is found to be linear over a wide range of temperature, which can be ranked it as semiconductor. This remarkable property of this copolymer resin may be used to make a wide range of semiconducting and electronic devices such as transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells and even lasers which can be manufactured by much simpler way than conventional inorganic semiconductors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the surface features of the resin.


Rahangdale S.S.,Commerce and Indiraben Hariharbhai Patel Science College | Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2012

Terpolymer resins (SOMF) were synthesized using salicylaldoxime, and melamine with formaldehyde in presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst and using different molar proportions of salicylaldoxime, melamine and formaldehyde respectively. Its composition has been determined on the basis of the elemental analysis. The number average molecular weights have been determined by non-aqueous conductometric titration. Themogravimetric data was analysed to determine thermal stability of terpolymer and kinetic parameters were evaluated on the basis of thermogram of terpolymer. Freeman-Carroll and Sharp-Wentworth method have been used to calculate activation energy and thermal stabilities of these polymers. Kinetic parameters have been calculated using data of Freeman-Carroll method. the results obtained have been suitably discussed.


Rahangdale S.S.,Commerce and Indiraben Hariharbhai Patel Science College | Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2011

The copolymer (2, 2'-HBDF) synthesized by the condensation of 2, 2'-dihydroxybiphenyl (2, 2'-HB) and dithiooxamide (D) with formaldehyde (F) in the presence of acid catalyst and using 1:1:2 molar proportions of the reacting monomers. The copolymer possesses antimicrobial activity for certain bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans. The thermogravimetric analysis of copolymer resin prepared in present study has been carried out by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis technique in which sample is subjected to condition of continuous increase in temperature at linear rate. Thermal study of the resin was carried out to determine its mode of decomposition and relative thermal stabilities. The Freeman-Carroll and Sharp-Wentworth methods have been used in the present investigation to calculate thermal activation energy and different kinetic parameter of the copolymer resins. The advantage of Freeman-Carroll method is to calculate both the order of reaction (n) and energy of activation in one single stage by keeping heating rate constant. By using data of thermogravimetric analysis, various thermogravimetric parameters like frequency factor (Z), entropy change (ΔS), free energy change (ΔF) and apparent entropy (S*) have been determined using Freeman-Carroll method.


Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya | Dhote S.S.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2012

Copolymer resin (2,4-DHBEDF) has been synthesized by the condensation polymerization of 2,4-dihyroxybenzoic acid and ethylene diamine with formaldehyde in the presence of acid catalyst, was proved to be selective chelation ion-exchange resin for certain heavy metals. The chelating ion-exchange properties of these copolymer was studied for Fe(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) ions in the form of their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of metal ion uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the copolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of various ionic strengths of different electrolytes. The ion-exchange capacity of metal ions has also been determined experimentally and compared with other commercial resins. Besides ion-exchange properties, the copolymer resin was also characterized by viscometric measurements in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), UV-visible absorption spectra in non-aqueous medium, infra-red spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and C 13 NMR spectra. The physico-chemical and spectral methods were used to elucidate the structures of 2,4-DHBEDF resin. The morphology of the copolymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy; showing amorphous nature of the resins therefore can be used as a selective ion- exchanger for certain metal ions.


Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya | Butoliya S.S.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2011

A copolymer (2,4-DHBPOF) synthesized by the condensation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and oxamide with formaldehyde in the presence of acid catalyst with varying the molar proportions of the reacting monomer. Composition of the copolymer has been determined by elemental analysis. The copolymer has been characterized by UV-visible, FTIR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The morphology of synthesized copolymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The activation energy (Ea) and thermal stability calculated by using Sharp-Wentworth, Freeman-Carroll, and Freidman's method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data were analyzed to estimate the characteristic thermal parameters. Freeman-Carroll and Sharp Wentworth methods have been used to calculate activation energy and thermal stability. The activation energy (Ea) calculated by using the Sharp-Wentworth has been found to be in good agreement with that calculated by Freeman-Carroll method. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔF), entropy change (ΔS), apparent entropy change (S*), and frequency factor (Z) have also been evaluated based on the data of Freeman-Carroll method. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Chamatkar A.J.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Butey P.K.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya
Proceedings - 1st International Conference on Computing, Communication, Control and Automation, ICCUBEA 2015 | Year: 2015

With the huge amount of information available online, the World Wide Web is a fertile area for data mining research. The data mining research is at the cross road of research from several research communities, such as database, information retrieval, and within AI, especially the sub-areas of machine learning and data integrity. Every E-commerce and social website in World Wide Web uses the Classification is one of the data mining problems receiving great attention recently in the database community. Neural network is not suitable for data mining directly, because how the classifications were made is not explicitly stated as symbolic rules that are suitable for verification or interpretation by humans. Different concise symbolic rules with high accuracy can be extracted from a neural network with the proposed approach. The neural network is first trained to achieve the required accuracy in data mining. In this paper we are going to combine neural network with the three different algorithms which are commonly used in data mining to improve the data mining result. These three algorithms are CHARM Algorithm, Top K Rules mining and CM SPAM Algorithm. The different datasets of online e-commerce website filpkart and Amazon are used to train the neural network and to use in data mining. The results of all three data mining algorithm with neural network techniques then tested on the available datasets and result are compared by computational complexity of the algorithm. © 2015 IEEE.


Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya | Katkamwar S.S.,Commerce and Science College
Rasayan Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

The concentration of different toxic metals has increased beyond environmentally and ecologically permissible lends due to increase in industrial activity. More than 100 million people of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh are affected by drinking ground water contaminated with copper, lead, cadmium and some part of India is also affected by poisoning effects of Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Lead. Different methods have been evolved to reduce the cadmium concentration in water in a maximum permissible level of 10 μg/L as where various methods are also available today, removal of cadmium and copper by polymeric ion-exchangers has been most effective. While chelating ion-exchange resins having specific chelating groups attached to a polymer have found extensive use in sorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions.The copolymer resin o-APDF has been synthesized by the condensation of o-amino phenol and dithiooxamide with formaldehyde in 1:1:2 molar ratio in presence of 2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The newly synthesized copolymer resin has been characterised by UV-visible, IR and proton NMR spectral studies. The copolymer o-APDF proved to be a selective chelating ion exchange polymer for certain metals. Chelating ionexchange properties of this polymer were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn 2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions. A batch equilibrium method has been employed in the study of the selectivity of metal-ion uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the copolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in media of various ionic strengths. The polymer showed higher selectivity for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+ than for Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+- and Pb+2 ions. Study of distribution ratio as a function of pH indicates that the amount of metal ion taken by resin increases with the increasing pH of the medium. © 2012 RASÄYAN. All rights reserved.


Gurnule W.B.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya | Bisen V.R.,Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Polycondensation technique was employed to synthesize copolymer resins of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phenyl hydrazine and formaldehyde in acidic medium with mole proportion of 1:1:2. The copolymer was characterized by ultraviolet, infra-red, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X- ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The thermal decomposition pattern and the kinetics of thermal decomposition of the copolymers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in a static nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10o C/min. Freeman- Carroll, Sharp- Wentworth, Freidman's, Chang and Coat Redfern methods have been adopted to evaluate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as thermal activation energies (Ea), order of the reaction (n), entropy change (ΔS), free energy change (ΔF), apparent entropy (S*), and frequency factor (Z).

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