Honolulu, HI, United States
Honolulu, HI, United States

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Aluli N.E.,Molokai General Hospital | Reyes P.W.,Kamehameha Schools | Tsark J.U.,Papa Ola Lakahi | Jones K.L.,MedStar Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Aims: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Native Hawaiians. In this article, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates among Native Hawaiians are examined, along with associated CVD risk factors. Methods: A total of 855 Native Hawaiians (343 men and 512 women, ages 19-88) were examined as participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Clinics program (1992-1998) and underwent surveillance through September 2007. Cause of each death was determined by review of medical records, death certificates, newspapers, and through queries to community members. Results: CVD accounted for 55% of deaths. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounted for the majority of CVD deaths. CVD increased with age and was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, or high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). CVD rates were higher in men than in women and fourfold higher in those with diabetes. In addition to age, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated LDL-C were major risk factors. Conclusions: Diabetes is a major determinant of CVD in this population and most of the CVD is occurring in those with diabetes. Strategies to prevent diabetes and manage blood pressure and lipids should reduce CVD rates in Native Hawaiians. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Chan K.M.A.,University of British Columbia | Guerry A.D.,Stanford University | Balvanera P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Klain S.,University of British Columbia | And 13 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2012

A focus on ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a means for improving decisionmaking. In the research to date, the valuation of the material contributions of ecosystems to human well-being has been emphasized, with less attention to important cultural ES and nonmaterial values. This gap persists because there is no commonly accepted framework for eliciting less tangible values, characterizing their changes, and including them alongside other services in decisionmaking. Here, we develop such a framework for ES research and practice, addressing three challenges: (1) Nonmaterial values are ill suited to characterization using monetary methods; (2) it is difficult to unequivocally link particular changes in socioecological systems to particular changes in cultural benefits; and (3) cultural benefits are associated with many services, not just cultural ES. There is no magic bullet, but our framework may facilitate fuller and more socially acceptable integrations of ES information into planning and management. © 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.


Goldstein J.H.,Colorado State University | Caldarone G.,Kamehameha Schools | Duarte T.K.,Kamehameha Schools | Ennaanay D.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

Recent high-profile efforts have called for integrating ecosystemservice values into important societal decisions, but there are few demonstrations of this approach in practice. We quantified ecosystem-service values to help the largest private landowner in Hawaii, Kamehameha Schools, design a land-use development plan that balances multiple private and public values on its North Shore land holdings (Island of O'ahu) of ∼10,600 ha. We used the InVEST software tool to evaluate the environmental and financial implications of seven planning scenarios encompassing contrasting land-use combinations including biofuel feedstocks, food crops, forestry, livestock, and residential development. All scenarios had positive financial return relative to the status quo of negative return. However, tradeoffs existed between carbon storage and water quality as well as between environmental improvement and financial return. Based on this analysis and community input, Kamehameha Schools is implementing a plan to support diversified agriculture and forestry. This plan generates a positive financial return ($10.9 million) and improved carbon storage (0.5% increase relative to status quo) with negative relative effects on water quality (15.4% increase in potential nitrogen export relative to status quo). The effects on water quality could be mitigated partially (reduced to a 4.9% increase in potential nitrogen export) by establishing vegetation buffers on agricultural fields. This plan contributes to policy goals for climate change mitigation, food security, and diversifying rural economic opportunities. More broadly, our approach illustrates how information can help guide local land-use decisions that involve tradeoffs between private and public interests.


Duarte T.K.,Kamehameha Schools | Minciardi R.,University of Genoa | Robba M.,University of Genoa | Sacile R.,University of Genoa
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology | Year: 2015

Saltwater intrusion and upconing phenomena affect coastal aquifers worldwide. These phenomena can be partially mitigated by an adequate management of the aquifer. In this work, the optimal pumping schedule for one coastal well has been defined by a decision model that minimizes desalination and pumping costs, while taking into account the aquifer salinity levels near the well. The dynamics of the aquifer is described in terms of two state equations related to salinity concentration in the pumped water and cumulative pumped water up to a specific instant. A case study is presented with application to a well in Hawaii islands. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Duarte T.K.,Kamehameha Schools | Pongkijvorasin S.,Chulalongkorn University | Roumasset J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Amato D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Burnett K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Water Resources Research | Year: 2010

We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawaii, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Satz D.,Stanford University | Gould R.K.,Stanford University | Chan K.M.A.,University of British Columbia | Guerry A.,Stanford University | And 8 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2013

The ecosystem services concept is used to make explicit the diverse benefits ecosystems provide to people, with the goal of improving assessment and, ultimately, decision-making. Alongside material benefits such as natural resources (e.g., clean water, timber), this concept includes - through the 'cultural' category of ecosystem services - diverse non-material benefits that people obtain through interactions with ecosystems (e.g., spiritual inspiration, cultural identity, recreation). Despite the longstanding focus of ecosystem services research on measurement, most cultural ecosystem services have defined measurement and inclusion alongside other more 'material' services. This gap in measurement of cultural ecosystem services is a product of several perceived problems, some of which are not real problems and some of which can be mitigated or even solved without undue difficulty. Because of the fractured nature of the literature, these problems continue to plague the discussion of cultural services. In this paper we discuss several such problems, which although they have been addressed singly, have not been brought together in a single discussion. There is a need for a single, accessible treatment of the importance and feasibility of integrating cultural ecosystem services alongside others. © 2013 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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