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Sivasankar S.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | Sivasankar S.,SASTRA University | Lavanya R.,SASTRA University | Brindha P.,SASTRA University | Angayarkanni N.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epitheliumis involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) that often leads to retinal detachment. In this study, Triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and two of its active ingredients, namely chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid were evaluated for anti-EMT properties based on in vitro experiments in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) under TGFβ1 induced conditions. ARPE-19 cells were treated with TGFβ1 alone or co-treated with various concentrations of aqueous extract (AqE) (30 - 300 μg/ml); alcoholic extract (AlE) (50 - 500 μg/ml) of triphala and the active principles chebulagic acid (CA) and chebulinic acid (CI) (CA,CI: 50 - 200 μM). The expression of EMT markers namely MMP-2, αSMA, vimentin and the tight junction protein ZO-1 were evaluated by qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. The functional implications of EMT, namelymigration and proliferation of cells were assessed by proliferation assay, scratch assay and transwell migration assay. AqE, AlE, CA and CI reduced the expression and activity ofMMP-2 at an ED50 value of 100 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μM and 100 μM, respectively. At these concentrations, a significant down-regulation of the expression of αSMA, vimentin and up-regulation of the expression of ZO-1 altered by TGFβ1 were observed. These concentrations also inhibited proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells induced by TGFβ1. EMT was found to be induced in ARPE-19 cells, through SMAD-3 phosphorylation and it was inhibited by AqE, AlE, CA and CI. Further studies in experimental animals are required to attribute therapeutic potential of these extracts and their active compounds, as an adjuvant therapy in the disease management of PVR. © 2015 Sivasankar et al. Source

Gopakumar V.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | Gopakumar V.,SASTRA University | Chatterjee N.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | Parameswaran S.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | And 2 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2016

Background aims: Skin keratinocytes (SKs) share the same surface ectodermal origin as that of corneal epithelium. In this study, the plasticity of epidermal keratinocytes was exploited to generate corneal epithelial-like cells, which might serve as an alternative source of autologous tissue for the treatment of bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods: Skin samples were subjected to collagenase digestion to isolate SKs and transdifferentiated to corneal epithelial-like cells using limbal fibroblast conditioned medium (LFCM). SKs and transdifferentiated corneal epithelial cells (TDCECs) were characterized using immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The propensity for expression of angiogenic genes in TDCECs was compared with cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells (COMEC) in vitro. RT2 quantitative polymerase chain reaction profiler array was performed to study the signaling pathways involved in the transdifferentiation process. Results: The TDCECs obtained from SKs showed corneal epithelial-like morphology and expressed corneal epithelial markers, CK3 and CK12. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry showed stratified layers of TDCECs expressing CK 3/12, confirming the corneal epithelial phenotype. We found that the expression of several angiogenic and epithelial mesenchymal transition factors were down-regulated in TDCECs compared with COMEC, suggesting a lower capacity to induce angiogenesis in TDCECs. There was considerable difference in the signaling mechanisms between TDCECs and SKs on testing by RT2 profiler array, signifying differences at the global gene profile. The comparison of TDCECs and limbal derived corneal epithelial cells showed similar gene expression. Discussion: Our study shows that SKs have the potential to transdifferentiate into corneal epithelial-like cells using LFCM. © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Source

Kanwar J.R.,Deakin University | Mahidhara G.,Deakin University | Roy K.,Deakin University | Sasidharan S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Aim: To validate the anticancer efficacy of alginate-enclosed, chitosan-conjugated, calcium phosphate, iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) nanocarriers/nanocapsules (NCs) with improved sustained release and ability to induce apoptosis by downregulating survivin, as well as cancer stem cells. Materials & methods: The stability, nanotoxicity of the modified nanoformulation was evaluated and their anticancer efficacy was re-examined. Their mechanism of internalization was studied and we identified the role of various miRNAs in absorption of these NCs/iron in various body parts of mice. We determined the effect of these NCs on survivin, stem cell markers, red blood cell count, iron, calcium and zinc concentration in mice, determined the antiangiogenic properties of these NCs and studied their effect on cancer stem-like cells. Results: Spherical NCs (396.1 ± 27.2 nm) exceedingly reduced viability of Caco-2 cells (32 ± 2.83%). The NCs also showed effective internalization and reduction of cancer stem cell markers in triple-positive CD133, survivin and CD44 cancer stem-like cells. Mice treated with the NCs showed no nanotoxicity and did not develop any tumors in xenograft colon cancer models. We found that the serum iron, zinc and calcium absorption were increased. DMT1, LRP, transferrin and lactoferrin receptors were responsible for internalization of the NCs. Different miRNAs were responsible for iron regulation in different organs. Interestingly, NCs inhibited survivin and its different isoforms. Conclusion: Our results confirmed that NCs internalized and changed the expression of selected miRNAs that further enhanced their uptake. The NCs activated both extrinsic, as well as intrinsic apoptotic pathways to induce apoptosis by targeting survivin in cancer cells and cancer stem cells, without inducing any nonspecific nanotoxicity. Apart from inhibiting angiogenesis and stem cell markers, NCs also maintained iron and calcium levels. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Roy K.,Deakin University | Kanwar R.K.,Deakin University | Antonio Cheung C.H.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee Fleming C.,Deakin University | And 4 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

We investigated the anti-cancer activity of alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles (CHNP) encapsulating cell-permeable dominant negative survivin (SR9) with locked nucleic acid (LNA) aptamers targeting EpCAM and nucleolin (termed as "nanobullets") in vitro (2D and 3D cell culture models) and in vivo (colon cancer mouse xenograft model). We incorporated three LNA modifications in each sequence in order to enhance the stability of these aptamers. Confocal microscopy revealed binding of the LNA-aptamers to their specific markers with high affinity. The muco-adhesive nanobullets showed 6-fold higher internalization in cancer cells when compared to non-cancerous cells, suggesting a tumour specific uptake. A higher intensity of nanobullets was observed in both the periphery and the core of the multicellular tumour spheroids compared to non-targeted CHNP-SR9. The nanobullets were found to be the highly effective as they led to a 2.26 fold (p < 0.05) reduction at 24 h and a 4.95 fold reduction (p ≤ 0.001) in the spheroid size at 72 h. The tumour regression was 4 fold higher in mice fed on a nanobullet diet when compared to a control diet. The nanobullets were able to show a significantly high apoptotic (p ≤ 0.0005) and necrotic index in the tumour cell population (p ≤ 0.005) when compared to void NPs. Therefore, our nanoparticles have shown highly promising results and therefore deliver a new conduit towards the approach of cancer-targeted nanodelivery. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

Rishi E.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | Rishi P.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | Sengupta S.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Institute for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology | Jambulingam M.,L and crobiology Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the clinicomicrobiologic characteristics and treatment outcomes in eyes with acute postoperative endophthalmitis (APE) owing to Bacillus cereus from a tertiary eye-care center. Design: Retrospective, interventional case series. Participants: Case records of all eyes with culture-proven APE attributable to B cereus from January 2000 to May 2011 were identified from a computerized database and evaluated. Methods: Clinical features at time of presentation, microbiological characteristics, and treatment measures were recorded. A thorough literature search using PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases was done to identify all cases of APE owing to Bacillus species reported to date and clinical characteristics of these eyes was compared with our series. Main Outcome Measures: Structural (globe salvage) and functional (visual rehabilitation) outcomes at last follow-up visit. Results: We found 6 sporadic cases that experienced APE during the study period. All eyes had a fulminant onset within the first 24 hours of cataract surgery with extremely high intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal edema similar to toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS). However, these eyes progressed rapidly to develop corneal infiltrates, scleral and uveal tissue necrosis with hyphema, brownish exudates in anterior chamber and necrotizing retinitis within hours despite immediate initiation of intravitreal pharmacotherapy and vitrectomy. All eyes demonstrated gram-positive bacilli from the aqueous and B cereus was isolated, which was sensitive to conventional antibiotics except penicillin. Two eyes required therapeutic keratoplasty, combined with a scleral patch graft in 1 eye, 1 eye was eviscerated after 48 hours of onset of symptoms, and 2 eyes experienced phthisical changes within 10 days of onset. Conclusions: We found that APE owing to B cereus has an onset within 12 to 24 hours of intraocular surgery and simulates TASS in the first few hours. The clinical course is marked by rapidly worsening necrotizing infection, leading to very poor outcomes despite early institution of appropriate therapy. One must closely observe every case of TASS that presents with intense pain and extremely high IOP and rule out APE owing to B cereus with microbiologic testing. Financial Disclosure(s): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Source

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