Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.

Pune, India

Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.

Pune, India
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Bharat Forge Ltd and Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd | Date: 2017-08-30

The present invention disclosed an ultra-high strength steel for structural components, a process of making such steel that has a desirable microstructure in the thermo-mechanically processed and differently cooled conditions that delivers high fatigue performance in service, and a process of making forged components using such steel. The steel and the process of its manufacturing enables manufacture of components that exhibit bainitic microstructure that impart ultra- high strength ranges with very high fatigue performance. The invention enables saving in alloying additives compared to hardened and tempered alloy steels and in addition avoid expensive heat treatment operations to achieve the desired range of mechanical properties. The steel of the invention is a suitable replacement for micro alloyed steel or heat treated steel bars used for structural component development. The steel can be used for applied as the hot rolled and air cooled long products that can be directly used for applications or it can be directly hot forged in open or closed die forging followed by controlled cooling to achieve the desired microstructure and range of mechanical properties.


Vadiraj A.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Kamaraj M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Kazuya E.,Nagaoka University of Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

The effect of tempering temperature (100-600 °C) on the hardness and wear resistance of a series of quenched and tempered hypereutectic alloyed gray cast irons has been studied in this work. Hardness was observed decreases with increase in tempering temperature and this trend is influenced by alloying additions and the volume of graphite flakes. Hardness of alloyed gray irons is also influenced by solid solution strengthening of tempered ferrite and carbide content and their distribution. The wear loss of alloyed cast irons was found to be lowest at a tempering temperature of 100 °C and 400 °C. The optimum tempering temperature is 400 °C with moderate hardness and low wear rate. This has been attributed to strengthening of the matrix at this temperature. Beyond 400 °C, the wear rate increases significantly due to carbide coagulation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Vadiraj A.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center | Kamaraj M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Kazuya E.,Nagaoka University of Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

Three groups of hypereutectic cast irons alloyed with Cu, Ni and microalloying additive like Ti and Nb were examined for its hardness and wear resistance in the austempered (360 °C/3. h) and quenched and tempered conditions at varying tempering temperatures. It is observed that the cast irons in the quenched and tempered condition showed good wear resistance and moderate hardness at 400 °C. This was comparable with the wear resistance in austempered condition. The study also showed that in quenched and tempered condition, increasing Cu content in cast irons improved its wear resistance moderately while increasing Ni content has decreased its wear resistance. The presence of strong carbide formers (Nb, Ti) did not give significant improvement in wear resistance in quenched and tempered condition. Even in austempered alloys, higher Cu content increases its wear resistance and higher Ni content decreases their wear resistance. The austempered alloys showed ausferritic microstructure with 20% austenite phase which enhances wear resistance through transformation induced plasticity effect. On the other hand, the quenched and tempered alloys showed good wear resistance at 400. °C due to fine tempered carbides in the matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Dhanasekaran S.,Advanced Engineering Group | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) has emerged in the recent years as a technologically important engineering material. Heat treatment of ductile iron in a salt bath at a temperature range between 250 and 450°C produces ADI. The advantages of ADI are excellent strength, fracture toughness and wear resistance that suit the service conditions of automobile components. It is further considered as an economic substitute for forged steels in certain automobile components. In this present investigation, spheroidal graphite iron, with as-cast ferritic microstructure was cast into automobile components of two different thicknesses. The components were initially austenized and suitably austempered. The effect of austempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed. The study demonstrates a significant improvement in the ferrite volume fraction and mechanical properties in thinner components. Copyright © 2011 SAE International and Copyright © 2011 SIAT, India.


Hariharan K.,Ashok Leyland Ltd. | Kalaivani K.,Ashok Leyland Ltd. | Balachandran G.,Ashok Leyland Ltd. | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2012

In the present work, double foil butt resistance seam welding in an automotive floor component has been investigated. The possibility of reducing foil from the existing configuration is evaluated. Mechanical properties of the single and double foil weld configuration are compared using tensile tests. The fractography of failed location is analyzed, and the force distribution in base metal and welded specimen is derived analytically to explain the observations in tensile tests. The microstructure and hardness profile of both the weld configurations and their influence on the mechanical properties are analyzed. The weld defect is analyzed using ultrasonic inspection technique. Based on the evaluation of metallurgical characterization and mechanical properties evaluation, the number of foils in an automotive floor component has been optimized. Cost savings of around 30% in the welding process is achieved by foil optimization. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balasubramanian V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Stainless steel bar and wire products that cater to the high technology application in defence, nuclear, aerospace, oil field and chemical engineering is an area poised for rapid growth in India. The advancing capabilities of alloy steel plants in India have enabled mastering of techniques to make a wide variety of stainless steels. However, there are increasing challenges to meet the advanced property requirements, which call for a basic understanding on the structure property relationship that are influenced by appropriate alloy design and down-stream processing. The special steel industry cater to a wide variety of stainless steels namely ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and precipitation hardenable categories for meeting requirements of high technology. One of the process for making the primary stainless steels is Vacuum Oxygen Decarburisation process. For advanced applications, the primary melted steel is again secondary refined using electroslagremelting for the management of solidification structures and control of inclusions. In the austenitic grades, the hot forged and hot rolled heat treated steels, careful choice of chemistry controls the delta ferrite content and ensures uniformity of the grain size in the product during deformation processing and heat treatment. In the martensitic stainless steel grades, focus is given to delta ferrite, grain size control and appropriate tempering treatment. In the precipitation hardenable steels grades the aging reactions and hot deformation range have to be optimised for deriving specified mechanical properties. Special grades are produced using non ESR and ESR routes to meet high temperature applications such as turbine blades and bolting. In these grades control of delta ferrite content, carbides, carbo-nitrides in the matrix has a deep influence on the mechanical and sub zero fracture properties. In the ferritic stainless steel grade grain size control is critical. The presentation would bring forth the correlation between the alloy design, processing and properties that were achieved in the products mentioned above to meet some of the challenging requirements. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Patil P.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd | Marje V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd | Balasubramanian V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd
International Journal of Cast Metals Research | Year: 2015

The effect of chemical composition of four different steel grades on solidification of 4 MT ingot at similar casting conditions has been examined using finite element model. As a consequence of change in grade dependent thermophysical properties, variations were obtained in velocity of the solidifying metal, which varied with carbon content, temperature distribution, mushy zone formation, porosity and piping. Microsegregation, which is measured by local solidification time, increased with increasing carbon content due to variation in solidus and liquidus. Alloy steels were found more prone to formation of shrinkage and central porosity compared to carbon steels. It is observed that solidification behaviour could not be related to specific thermophysical property, and combination of thermophysical properties and the alloy solidification characteristics affect the same. Improvement in alloy steel ingot quality was achieved through variation in hot top design. This study shows that steel ingot quality and yield is affected by subtle changes in composition. © 2015 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd.


Marje V.R.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Kulkarni S.V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balasubramanian V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.
ASM International - 28th Heat Treating Society Conference, HEAT TREATING 2015 | Year: 2015

Heat treatment response of a complex shaped cylindrical component with varying sections of thickness and length has been studied in a I 5CDV6 bainitic steel. The effect of cooling rate at every location has been predicted using an FEM based simulation. The distortion associated with the experimental component was matched with the theoretical FEM based heat treatment model. The component distortion has been attributed to the strain associated with volume changes associated with thermal gradient and phase transformation at various locations. The heat flux on the surface was modelled to arrive at heat transfer by inverse technique. The study validates the definition of boundary conditions for such complex components. © 2015 ASM International®.


Patil P.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Nalawade R.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balasubramanian V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.
Ironmaking and Steelmaking | Year: 2015

Solidification in a small experimental steel ingot casting was studied using finite element based simulation. Using the model, the phenomenon associated with fluid flow, temperature distribution, mushy zone formation, thermal gradient ahead of solidification front, local solidification time at various instances of solidification was examined. The heat transfer was found significant till a critical thickness of the solidified ingot. Air gap analysis during the solidification showed that, in spite of high ferrostatic pressure of liquid metal there is notable air gap in the ingot bottom. The model predicted the final piping shrinkage and some small zones of axial porosity formation. The experimental ingot showed a good match on piping shrinkage and porosity obtained from simulation. The microstructure formation in the experimental ingot could be correlated with simulation results. The approximate regime of columnar to equiaxed transition was estimated form the simulation and was matched with that obtained in the actual experimental ingot. The microstructures of the ingot at typical zones were examined in the ingot and correlated to local solidification time. © 2015 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


Patil P.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Puranik A.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Balasubramanian V.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.
Ironmaking and Steelmaking | Year: 2016

Effect of increasing mould wall thickness on quality of low alloy square steel ingot of 40cmd8 grade (AISI P20) and of 4 t weight were studied by comparing three cases with the help of FEM simulation. Solidification simulation software THERCAST was used which could predict fluid flow, temperature, solidification, piping and centreline porosity for the cast ingot. With increased mould wall thickness fluid flow was not much affected. Heat transfer was retarded with increased mould wall thickness which delayed the solidification. Solidification profiles were with thin mushy zone and wide shaped which has lesser chances of dendrites bridging and helps in avoiding central porosity. Piping and porosity were predicted based on Niyama criteria. It was seen that porosity in the ingot centre were decreased with increased mould wall thickness. Optimal mould wall thickness could be obtained for square ingot of low alloy steel grade. © 2016 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining

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