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Fornebu, Norway

Said A.,Kalkulo AS | Moder C.,Kalkulo AS | Clark S.,Kalkulo AS | Abdelmalak M.M.,University of Oslo
Journal of African Earth Sciences

Data from 23 wells were used to quantify the sedimentary budgets in the Tanzania coastal basin in order to unravel the uplift chronology of the sourcing area located in the East African Rift System. We quantified the siliciclastic sedimentary volumes preserved in the Tanzania coastal basin corrected for compaction and in situ (e.g., carbonates) production. We found that the drainage areas, which supplied sediments to this basin, were eroded in four episodes: (1) during the middle Jurassic, (2) during the Campanian-Palaeocene, (3) during the middle Eocene and (4) during the Miocene. Three of these high erosion and sedimentation periods are more likely related to uplift events in the East African Rift System and earlier rift shoulders and plume uplifts. Indeed, rapid cooling in the rift system and high denudation rates in the sediment source area are coeval with these recorded pulses. However, the middle Eocene pulse was synchronous with a fall in the sea level, a climatic change and slow cooling of the rift flanks and thus seems more likely due to climatic and eustatic variations. We show that the rift shoulders of the East African rift system have inherited their present relief from at least three epeirogenic uplift pulses of middle Jurassic, Campanian-Palaeocene, and Miocene ages. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hjelle O.,Kalkulo AS | Petersen S.A.,Statoil | Bruaset A.M.,Simula Research Laboratory | Bruaset A.M.,University of Oslo
Mathematical Geosciences

A numerical framework for modeling folds in structural geology is presented. This framework is based on a novel and recently published Hamilton-Jacobi formulation by which a continuum of layer boundaries of a fold is modeled as a propagating front. All the fold classes from the classical literature (parallel folds, similar folds, and other fold types with convergent and divergent dip isogons) are modeled in two and three dimensions as continua defined on a finite difference grid. The propagating front describing the fold geometry is governed by a static Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which is discretized by upwind finite differences and a dynamic stencil construction. This forms the basis of numerical solution by finite difference solvers such as fast marching and fast sweeping methods. A new robust and accurate scheme for initialization of finite difference solvers for the static Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also derived. The framework has been integrated in simulation software, and a numerical example is presented based on seismic data collected from the Karama Block in the North Makassar Strait outside Sulawesi. © 2013 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences. Source

Gillberg T.,Simula Research Laboratory | Hjelle O.,Kalkulo AS | Bruaset A.M.,Simula Research Laboratory | Bruaset A.M.,University of Oslo
Computational Geosciences

Motivated by the needs for creating fast and accurate models of complex geological scenarios, accuracy and efficiency of three stencils for the isotropic eikonal equation on rectangular grids are evaluated using a fast marching implementation. The stencils are derived by direct modelling of the wave front, resulting in new and valuable insight in terms of improved upwind and causality conditions. After introducing a method for generalising first-order upwind stencils to higher order, a new second-order diagonal stencil is presented. Similarly to the multistencil fast marching approach, the diagonal stencil makes use of nodes in the diagonal directions, whereas the traditional Godunov stencil uses solely edge-connected neighbours. The diagonal stencil uses nodes close to each other, reaching upwind, to get a more accurate estimate of the angle of incidence of the arriving wave front. Although the stencils are evaluated in a fast marching setting, they can be adapted to other efficient eikonal solvers. All first- and second-order stencils are evaluated in a range of tests. The first test case models a folded structure from the Zagros fold belt in Iran. The other test cases are constructed to investigate specific properties of the examined stencils. The numerical investigation considers convergence rates and CPU times for non-constant and constant speed first-arrival computations. In conclusion, the diagonal stencil is the most efficient and accurate of the three alternatives. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Noack M.,Kalkulo AS | Noack M.,Simula Research Laboratory | Noack M.,University of Oslo
Journal of Computational Science

Wave form modeling is used in a vast number of applications. Therefore, different methods have been developed that exhibit different strengths and weaknesses in accuracy, stability and computational cost. The latter remains a problem for most applications. Parallel programming has had a large impact on wave field modeling since the solution of the wave equation can be divided into independent steps. The finite difference solution of the wave equation is particularly suitable for GPU acceleration; however, one problem is the rather limited global memory current GPUs are equipped with. For this reason, most large-scale applications require multiple GPUs to be employed. This paper proposes a method to optimally distribute the workload on different GPUs by avoiding devices that are running idle. This is done by using a list of active sub-domains so that a certain sub-domain is activated only if the amplitude inside the sub-domain exceeds a given threshold. During the computation, every GPU checks if the sub-domain needs to be active. If not, the GPU can be assigned to another sub-domain. The method was applied to synthetic examples to test the accuracy and the efficiency of the method. The results show that the method offers a more efficient utilization of multi-GPU computer architectures. © 2015 The Author. Source

Dumont K.-A.,University of Oslo | Karlsen J.S.,Kalkulo AS | Helle-Valle T.,University of Oslo | Fiane A.E.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Background: We hypothesized that a novel three-dimensional virtual semi-transparent annulus plane (3D VSAP) presented on a holographic screen can be used to visualize the prolapsing tissue in degenerative mitral valve disease and furthermore, provide us with geometrical data of the mitral valve apparatus. Phantom and patient studies were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a semi-automatic, semi-transparent mitral annulus plane visualized on a holographic display. Methods: Ten pipe cleaners mimicking the mitral annulus with different shapes and three types of annuloplasty rings served as phantoms. We obtained 3D transoesophageal examination of the phantoms in a special designed box filled with water. Recordings were converted to the holographic display and a 3D VSAP was created. The ratio of the major and minor axes as well as the non-planar angles were calculated and compared with direct measures of the phantoms. Forty patients with degenerative mitral valve disease were then analyzed with 3D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and a 3D VSAP was created on the holographic display. A total of 240 segments were analyzed by two independent observers, one echo expert (observer I), and the other novice with limited echo experience (observer II). The two observers created the 3D VSAP in each patient before suggesting the valve pathology. Results: The major/minor axes ratio and non-planar angles by 3D VSAP correlated with direct measurements by r = 0.65, p < 0.02 and r = 0.99, p < 0.0001, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the 3D VSAP method in patients was 81 and 97 %, respectively (observer I) and for observer II 77 and 96 %, respectively. The accuracy and precisions were 93.9 and 89.4 %, respectively (observer I), 92.3 and 85.1 % (observer II). Mitral valve analysis adding a 3D VSAP was feasible with high accuracy and precision, providing a quick and less subjective method for diagnosing mitral valve prolapse. This novel method may improve preoperative diagnostics and may relieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease. Thus, based on the specific findings in each patient, a tailored surgical repair can be planned and hopefully enhance long-term repair patency in the future. © 2015 Dumont et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

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