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Hans M.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital
Journal of oral science

Innate immunity is the first line of host defense and represents inherited resistance to infection. Innate immunity works through toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize the conserved molecular patterns on pathogenic bacteria known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The periodontium is a unique environment in which oral microorganisms are in constant contact with the host immune system. The TLRs present on gingival epithelial cells are continuously stimulated, resulting in production of cytokines and defensins that help to maintain oral health. If the epithelial barrier is breached, allowing invasion of bacteria into the underlying connective tissue, the TLRs on other resident and non-resident cells of the periodontium become activated. This leads to an exaggerated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other biological mediators, which may cause host tissue destruction. The present review examines the role of TLRs and their signaling in periodontal health and disease. Source

Sharma T.,Seema Dental College and Hospital | Phull T.S.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital | Rana T.,Seema Dental College and Hospital | Kumar V.,Seema Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open/raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. Source

Bansal N.,Surendera Dental College and Research Institute | Bansal R.,Seema Dental College and Research Institute | Sabharwal R.,Bhojia Dental College and Hospital | Gupta A.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of African Medicine

Ameloblastoma is the most common aggressive benign odontogenic tumor of the jaws. Ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor that typically arises in the mandible or maxilla or, rarely, in the immediate adjacent soft tissues. A clinical, radiographic and histopathological report is presented of a case of acanthomatous ameloblastoma in relation to molar in the left mandible of a 30-year-old healthy male. The histopathological examination of the removed specimen revealed the histopathological pattern of an acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The radiographic appearance of the lesion showed the presence of multilocular radiolucencies, which were crossing the midline, which is rarely found in ameloblastoma. Due to its rarity and lack of data, we take this opportunity to present a world first case of acanthomatous ameloblastoma which was crossing the midline. Source

Rastogi V.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital | Sharma R.,Seema Dental College and Hospital | Misra S.R.,Institute of Dental science | Yadav L.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

Oral soft tissues are affected by numerous pathologic conditions of variable etiology and hence their appropriate management relies on their accurate diagnosis. Clinical identification of intact vesicle and bulla in the oral cavity is really a challenge due to the regular irritation and the friable nature of oral mucosa. Rupture of these lesions leads to erosions or ulcerations on the surface, hence making the diagnosis of vesiculobullous (VB) lesions is even more difficult due to the fact that the differential diagnosis along with VB lesions will also include ulcerative, immunological-mediated diseases, and neoplasms and systemic diseases. Hence, knowledge of the clinical presentation of these disorders and the relevant diagnostic procedures is important not just for dermatologists, but also for general practitioners and dentists. In this article, the various procedures have been explained that can be used for the diagnostic purpose of VB lesions. © 2014, Medknow. All rights reserved. Source

Yadav S.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital | Tyagi S.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital | Kumar P.,Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College and Research Center | Puri N.,Kalka Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine

In literal terms myiasis is the invasion of the tissues and organs of human beings by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in developed and developing countries. When the tissues of oral cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, the condition is called as oral myiasis. With the paper we are presenting a case of 19-year-old female suffering from oral myiasis of upper lip and palate. The treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae, surgical debridement of the wound and oral therapy with doxycycline used as a locally acting drug for faster and better recovery. Source

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